集册 Spring Boot 入门实践 在Spring Boot项目中使用Spock框架

在Spring Boot项目中使用Spock框架

欢马劈雪     最近更新时间:2020-08-04 05:37:59

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Spock框架是基于Groovy语言的测试框架,Groovy与Java具备良好的互操作性,因此可以在Spring Boot项目中使用该框架写优雅、高效以及DSL化的测试用例。Spock通过@RunWith注解与JUnit框架协同使用,另外,Spock也可以和Mockito(Spring Boot应用的测试——Mockito)协同使用。

在这个小节中我们会利用Spock、Mockito一起编写一些测试用例(包括对Controller的测试和对Repository的测试),感受下Spock的使用。

How Do

  • 根据Building an Application with Spring Boot这篇文章的描述,spring-boot-maven-plugin这个插件同时也支持在Spring Boot框架中使用Groovy语言。
  • 在pom文件中添加Spock框架的依赖
<!-- test -->
<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
   <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
<dependency>
   <groupId>org.spockframework</groupId>
   <artifactId>spock-core</artifactId>
   <scope>test</scope></dependency>
<dependency>
   <groupId>org.spockframework</groupId>
   <artifactId>spock-spring</artifactId>
   <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
  • 在src/test目录下创建groovy文件夹,在groovy文件夹下创建com/test/bookpub包。
  • com/test/bookpub目录下创建SpockBookRepositorySpecification.groovy文件,内容是:
@WebAppConfiguration
@ContextConfiguration(classes = [BookPubApplication.class,
 TestMockBeansConfig.class],loader = SpringApplicationContextLoader.class)
class SpockBookRepositorySpecification extends Specification {
    @Autowired
    private ConfigurableApplicationContext context;
    @Shared
    boolean sharedSetupDone = false;
    @Autowired
    private DataSource ds;
    @Autowired
    private BookRepository bookRepository;
    @Autowired
    private PublisherRepository publisherRepository;
    @Shared
    private MockMvc mockMvc;

    void setup() {
        if (!sharedSetupDone) {
            mockMvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(context).build();
            sharedSetupDone = true;
        }
        ResourceDatabasePopulator populator = new 
               ResourceDatabasePopulator(context.getResource("classpath:/packt-books.sql"));
        DatabasePopulatorUtils.execute(populator, ds);
    }

    @Transactional
    def "Test RESTful GET"() {
        when:
        def result = mockMvc.perform(get("/books/${isbn}"));

        then:
        result.andExpect(status().isOk()) 
       result.andExpect(content().string(containsString("title")));

       where:
       isbn              | title
      "978-1-78398-478-7"|"Orchestrating Docker"
      "978-1-78528-415-1"|"Spring Boot Recipes"
    }

    @Transactional
    def "Insert another book"() {
      setup:
      def existingBook = bookRepository.findBookByIsbn("978-1-78528-415-1")
      def newBook = new Book("978-1-12345-678-9", "Some Future Book",
              existingBook.getAuthor(), existingBook.getPublisher())

      expect:
      bookRepository.count() == 3

      when:
      def savedBook = bookRepository.save(newBook)

      then:
      bookRepository.count() == 4
      savedBook.id > -1
  }
}
  • 执行测试用例,测试通过
  • 接下来试验下Spock如何与mock对象一起工作,之前的文章中我们已经在TestMockBeansConfig类中定义了PublisherRepository的Spring Bean,如下所示,由于@Primary的存在,使得在运行测试用例时Spring Boot优先使用Mockito框架模拟出的实例。
@Configuration
@UsedForTesting
public class TestMockBeansConfig {
    @Bean
    @Primary
    public PublisherRepository createMockPublisherRepository() {
        return Mockito.mock(PublisherRepository.class);
    }
}
  • 在BookController.java中添加getBooksByPublisher接口,代码如下所示:
@Autowired
public PublisherRepository publisherRepository;

@RequestMapping(value = "/publisher/{id}", method = RequestMethod.GET)
public List<Book> getBooksByPublisher(@PathVariable("id") Long id) {
    Publisher publisher = publisherRepository.findOne(id);
    Assert.notNull(publisher);
    return publisher.getBooks();
}
  • SpockBookRepositorySpecification.groovy文件中添加对应的测试用例,
def "Test RESTful GET books by publisher"() {
    setup:
    Publisher publisher = new Publisher("Strange Books")
    publisher.setId(999)
    Book book = new Book("978-1-98765-432-1",
            "Mytery Book",
            new Author("Jhon", "Done"),
            publisher)
    publisher.setBooks([book])
    Mockito.when(publisherRepository.count()).
            thenReturn(1L);
    Mockito.when(publisherRepository.findOne(1L)).
            thenReturn(publisher)

    when:
    def result = mockMvc.perform(get("/books/publisher/1"))

    then:
    result.andExpect(status().isOk())
    result.andExpect(content().string(containsString("Strange Books")))

    cleanup:
    Mockito.reset(publisherRepository)
}
  • 运行测试用例,发现可以测试通过,在控制器将对象转换成JSON字符串装入HTTP响应体时,依赖Jackson库执行转换,可能会有循环依赖的问题——在模型关系中,一本书依赖一个出版社,一个出版社有包含多本书,在执行转换时,如果不进行特殊处理,就会循环解析。我们这里通过@JsonBackReference注解阻止循环依赖。

分析

可以看出,通过Spock框架可以写出优雅而强大的测试代码。

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