Chapter 13 SQL Statement Syntax

Table of Contents

13.1 Data Definition Statements
13.1.1 Atomic Data Definition Statement Support
13.1.2 ALTER DATABASE Syntax
13.1.3 ALTER EVENT Syntax
13.1.4 ALTER FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.5 ALTER INSTANCE Syntax
13.1.6 ALTER LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.7 ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax
13.1.8 ALTER SERVER Syntax
13.1.9 ALTER TABLE Syntax
13.1.10 ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.11 ALTER VIEW Syntax
13.1.12 CREATE DATABASE Syntax
13.1.13 CREATE EVENT Syntax
13.1.14 CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.15 CREATE INDEX Syntax
13.1.16 CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.17 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.18 CREATE SERVER Syntax
13.1.19 CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM Syntax
13.1.20 CREATE TABLE Syntax
13.1.21 CREATE TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.22 CREATE TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.23 CREATE VIEW Syntax
13.1.24 DROP DATABASE Syntax
13.1.25 DROP EVENT Syntax
13.1.26 DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.27 DROP INDEX Syntax
13.1.28 DROP LOGFILE GROUP Syntax
13.1.29 DROP PROCEDURE and DROP FUNCTION Syntax
13.1.30 DROP SERVER Syntax
13.1.31 DROP SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM Syntax
13.1.32 DROP TABLE Syntax
13.1.33 DROP TABLESPACE Syntax
13.1.34 DROP TRIGGER Syntax
13.1.35 DROP VIEW Syntax
13.1.36 RENAME TABLE Syntax
13.1.37 TRUNCATE TABLE Syntax
13.2 Data Manipulation Statements
13.2.1 CALL Syntax
13.2.2 DELETE Syntax
13.2.3 DO Syntax
13.2.4 HANDLER Syntax
13.2.5 IMPORT TABLE Syntax
13.2.6 INSERT Syntax
13.2.7 LOAD DATA Syntax
13.2.8 LOAD XML Syntax
13.2.9 REPLACE Syntax
13.2.10 SELECT Syntax
13.2.11 Subquery Syntax
13.2.12 UPDATE Syntax
13.2.13 WITH Syntax (Common Table Expressions)
13.3 Transactional and Locking Statements
13.3.1 START TRANSACTION, COMMIT, and ROLLBACK Syntax
13.3.2 Statements That Cannot Be Rolled Back
13.3.3 Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit
13.3.4 SAVEPOINT, ROLLBACK TO SAVEPOINT, and RELEASE SAVEPOINT Syntax
13.3.5 LOCK INSTANCE FOR BACKUP and UNLOCK INSTANCE Syntax
13.3.6 LOCK TABLES and UNLOCK TABLES Syntax
13.3.7 SET TRANSACTION Syntax
13.3.8 XA Transactions
13.4 Replication Statements
13.4.1 SQL Statements for Controlling Master Servers
13.4.2 SQL Statements for Controlling Slave Servers
13.4.3 SQL Statements for Controlling Group Replication
13.5 Prepared SQL Statement Syntax
13.5.1 PREPARE Syntax
13.5.2 EXECUTE Syntax
13.5.3 DEALLOCATE PREPARE Syntax
13.6 Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.1 BEGIN ... END Compound-Statement Syntax
13.6.2 Statement Label Syntax
13.6.3 DECLARE Syntax
13.6.4 Variables in Stored Programs
13.6.5 Flow Control Statements
13.6.6 Cursors
13.6.7 Condition Handling
13.6.8 Restrictions on Condition Handling
13.7 Database Administration Statements
13.7.1 Account Management Statements
13.7.2 Resource Group Management Statements
13.7.3 Table Maintenance Statements
13.7.4 Component, Plugin, and User-Defined Function Statements
13.7.5 CLONE Syntax
13.7.6 SET Syntax
13.7.7 SHOW Syntax
13.7.8 Other Administrative Statements
13.8 Utility Statements
13.8.1 DESCRIBE Syntax
13.8.2 EXPLAIN Syntax
13.8.3 HELP Syntax
13.8.4 USE Syntax

This chapter describes the syntax for the SQL statements supported by MySQL.

13.1 Data Definition Statements

13.1.1 Atomic Data Definition Statement Support

MySQL 8.0 supports atomic Data Definition Language (DDL) statements. This feature is referred to as atomic DDL. An atomic DDL statement combines the data dictionary updates, storage engine operations, and binary log writes associated with a DDL operation into a single, atomic transaction. The transaction is either committed, with applicable changes persisted to the data dictionary, storage engine, and binary log, or is rolled back, even if the server halts during the operation.

Atomic DDL is made possible by the introduction of the MySQL data dictionary in MySQL 8.0. In earlier MySQL versions, metadata was stored in metadata files, nontransactional tables, and storage engine-specific dictionaries, which necessitated intermediate commits. Centralized, transactional metadata storage provided by the MySQL data dictionary removed this barrier, making it possible to restructure DDL statement operations into atomic transactions.

The atomic DDL feature is described under the following topics in this section:

Supported DDL Statements

The atomic DDL feature supports both table and non-table DDL statements. Table-related DDL operations require storage engine support, whereas non-table DDL operations do not. Currently, only the InnoDB storage engine supports atomic DDL.

  • Supported table DDL statements include CREATE, ALTER, and DROP statements for databases, tablespaces, tables, and indexes, and the TRUNCATE TABLE statement.

  • Supported non-table DDL statements include:

    • CREATE and DROP statements, and, if applicable, ALTER statements for stored programs, triggers, views, and user-defined functions (UDFs).

    • Account management statements: CREATE, ALTER, DROP, and, if applicable, RENAME statements for users and roles, as well as GRANT and REVOKE statements.

The following statements are not supported by the atomic DDL feature:

Atomic DDL Characteristics

The characteristics of atomic DDL statements include the following:

  • Metadata updates, binary log writes, and storage engine operations, where applicable, are combined into a single transaction.

  • There are no intermediate commits at the SQL layer during the DDL operation.

  • Where applicable:

    • The state of data dictionary, routine, event, and UDF caches is consistent with the status of the DDL operation, meaning that caches are updated to reflect whether or not the DDL operation was completed successfully or rolled back.

    • The storage engine methods involved in a DDL operation do not perform intermediate commits, and the storage engine registers itself as part of the DDL transaction.

    • The storage engine supports redo and rollback of DDL operations, which is performed in the Post-DDL phase of the DDL operation.

  • The visible behaviour of DDL operations is atomic, which changes the behavior of some DDL statements. See Changes in DDL Statement Behavior.

Note

DDL statements, atomic or otherwise, implicitly end any transaction that is active in the current session, as if you had done a COMMIT before executing the statement. This means that DDL statements cannot be performed within another transaction, within transaction control statements such as START TRANSACTION ... COMMIT, or combined with other statements within the same transaction.

Changes in DDL Statement Behavior

This section describes changes in DDL statement behavior due to the introduction of atomic DDL support.

  • DROP TABLE operations are fully atomic if all named tables use an atomic DDL-supported storage engine. The statement either drops all tables successfully or is rolled back.

    DROP TABLE fails with an error if a named table does not exist, and no changes are made, regardless of the storage engine. This change in behavior is demonstrated in the following example, where the DROP TABLE statement fails because a named table does not exist:

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT);
    mysql> DROP TABLE t1, t2;
    ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.t2'
    mysql> SHOW TABLES;
    +----------------+
    | Tables_in_test |
    +----------------+
    | t1             |
    +----------------+
    

    Prior to the introduction of atomic DDL, DROP TABLE reports an error for the named table that does not exist but succeeds for the named table that does exist:

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT);
    mysql> DROP TABLE t1, t2;
    ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.t2'
    mysql> SHOW TABLES;
    Empty set (0.00 sec)
    
    Note

    Due to this change in behavior, a partially completed DROP TABLE statement on a MySQL 5.7 master fails when replicated on a MySQL 8.0 slave. To avoid this failure scenario, use IF EXISTS syntax in DROP TABLE statements to prevent errors from occurring for tables that do not exist.

  • DROP DATABASE is atomic if all tables use an atomic DDL-supported storage engine. The statement either drops all objects successfully or is rolled back. However, removal of the database directory from the file system occurs last and is not part of the atomic transaction. If removal of the database directory fails due to a file system error or server halt, the DROP DATABASE transaction is not rolled back.

  • For tables that do not use an atomic DDL-supported storage engine, table deletion occurs outside of the atomic DROP TABLE or DROP DATABASE transaction. Such table deletions are written to the binary log individually, which limits the discrepancy between the storage engine, data dictionary, and binary log to one table at most in the case of an interrupted DROP TABLE or DROP DATABASE operation. For operations that drop multiple tables, the tables that do not use an atomic DDL-supported storage engine are dropped before tables that do.

  • CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, RENAME TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE, CREATE TABLESPACE, and DROP TABLESPACE operations for tables that use an atomic DDL-supported storage engine are either fully committed or rolled back if the server halts during their operation. In earlier MySQL releases, interruption of these operations could cause discrepancies between the storage engine, data dictionary, and binary log, or leave behind orphan files. RENAME TABLE operations are only atomic if all named tables use an atomic DDL-supported storage engine.

  • DROP VIEW fails if a named view does not exist, and no changes are made. The change in behavior is demonstrated in this example, where the DROP VIEW statement fails because a named view does not exist:

    mysql> CREATE VIEW test.viewA AS SELECT * FROM t;
    mysql> DROP VIEW test.viewA, test.viewB;
    ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.viewB'
    mysql> SHOW FULL TABLES IN test WHERE TABLE_TYPE LIKE 'VIEW';
    +----------------+------------+
    | Tables_in_test | Table_type |
    +----------------+------------+
    | viewA          | VIEW       |
    +----------------+------------+
    

    Prior to the introduction of atomic DDL, DROP VIEW returns an error for the named view that does not exist but succeeds for the named view that does exist:

    mysql> CREATE VIEW test.viewA AS SELECT * FROM t;
    mysql> DROP VIEW test.viewA, test.viewB;
    ERROR 1051 (42S02): Unknown table 'test.viewB'
    mysql> SHOW FULL TABLES IN test WHERE TABLE_TYPE LIKE 'VIEW';
    Empty set (0.00 sec)
    
    Note

    Due to this change in behavior, a partially completed DROP VIEW operation on a MySQL 5.7 master fails when replicated on a MySQL 8.0 slave. To avoid this failure scenario, use IF EXISTS syntax in DROP VIEW statements to prevent an error from occurring for views that do not exist.

  • Partial execution of account management statements is no longer permitted. Account management statements either succeed for all named users or roll back and have no effect if an error occurs. In earlier MySQL versions, account management statements that name multiple users could succeed for some users and fail for others.

    The change in behavior is demonstrated in this example, where the second CREATE USER statement returns an error but fails because it cannot succeed for all named users.

    mysql> CREATE USER userA;
    mysql> CREATE USER userA, userB;
    ERROR 1396 (HY000): Operation CREATE USER failed for 'userA'@'%'
    mysql> SELECT User FROM mysql.user WHERE User LIKE 'user%';
    +-------+
    | User  |
    +-------+
    | userA |
    +-------+
    

    Prior to the introduction of atomic DDL, the second CREATE USER statement returns an error for the named user that does not exist but succeeds for the named user that does exist:

    mysql> CREATE USER userA;
    mysql> CREATE USER userA, userB;
    ERROR 1396 (HY000): Operation CREATE USER failed for 'userA'@'%'
    mysql> SELECT User FROM mysql.user WHERE User LIKE 'user%';
    +-------+
    | User  |
    +-------+
    | userA |
    | userB |
    +-------+
    
    Note

    Due to this change in behavior, partially completed account management statements on a MySQL 5.7 master fail when replicated on a MySQL 8.0 slave. To avoid this failure scenario, use IF EXISTS or IF NOT EXISTS syntax, as appropriate, in account management statements to prevent errors related to named users.

Storage Engine Support

Currently, only the InnoDB storage engine supports atomic DDL. Storage engines that do not support atomic DDL are exempted from DDL atomicity. DDL operations involving exempted storage engines remain capable of introducing inconsistencies that can occur when operations are interrupted or only partially completed.

To support redo and rollback of DDL operations, InnoDB writes DDL logs to the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table, which is a hidden data dictionary table that resides in the mysql.ibd data dictionary tablespace.

To view DDL logs that are written to the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table during a DDL operation, enable the innodb_print_ddl_logs configuration option. For more information, see Viewing DDL Logs.

Note

The redo logs for changes to the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table are flushed to disk immediately regardless of the innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit setting. Flushing the redo logs immediately avoids situations where data files are modified by DDL operations but the redo logs for changes to the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table resulting from those operations are not persisted to disk. Such a situation could cause errors during rollback or recovery.

The InnoDB storage engine executes DDL operations in phases. DDL operations such as ALTER TABLE may perform the Prepare and Perform phases multiple times prior to the Commit phase.

  1. Prepare: Create the required objects and write the DDL logs to the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table. The DDL logs define how to roll forward and roll back the DDL operation.

  2. Perform: Perform the DDL operation. For example, perform a create routine for a CREATE TABLE operation.

  3. Commit: Update the data dictionary and commit the data dictionary transaction.

  4. Post-DDL: Replay and remove DDL logs from the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table. To ensure that rollback can be performed safely without introducing inconsistencies, file operations such as renaming or removing data files are performed in this final phase. This phase also removes dynamic metadata from the mysql.innodb_dynamic_metadata data dictionary table for DROP TABLE, TRUNCATE TABLE, and other DDL operations that rebuild the table.

DDL logs are replayed and removed from the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table during the Post-DDL phase, regardless of whether the transaction is committed or rolled back. DDL logs should only remain in the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table if the server is halted during a DDL operation. In this case, the DDL logs are replayed and removed after recovery.

In a recovery situation, a DDL transaction may be committed or rolled back when the server is restarted. If the data dictionary transaction that was performed during the Commit phase of a DDL operation is present in the redo log and binary log, the operation is considered successful and is rolled forward. Otherwise, the incomplete data dictionary transaction is rolled back when InnoDB replays data dictionary redo logs, and the DDL transaction is rolled back.

Viewing DDL Logs

To view DDL logs that are written to the mysql.innodb_ddl_log data dictionary table during atomic DDL operations that involve the InnoDB storage engine, enable innodb_print_ddl_logs to have MySQL write the DDL logs to stderr. Depending on the host operating system and MySQL configuration, stderr may be the error log, terminal, or console window. See Section 5.4.2.2, “Default Error Log Destination Configuration”.

InnoDB writes DDL logs to the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table to support redo and rollback of DDL operations. The mysql.innodb_ddl_log table is a hidden data dictionary table that resides in the mysql.ibd data dictionary tablespace. Like other hidden data dictionary tables, the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table cannot be accessed directly in non-debug versions of MySQL. (See Section 14.1, “Data Dictionary Schema”.) The structure of the mysql.innodb_ddl_log table corresponds to this definition:

CREATE TABLE mysql.innodb_ddl_log (
  id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
  thread_id BIGINT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
  type INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL,
  space_id INT UNSIGNED,
  page_no INT UNSIGNED,
  index_id BIGINT UNSIGNED,
  table_id BIGINT UNSIGNED,
  old_file_path VARCHAR(512) COLLATE UTF8_BIN,
  new_file_path VARCHAR(512) COLLATE UTF8_BIN,
  KEY(thread_id)
);
  • id: A unique identifier for a DDL log record.

  • thread_id: Each DDL log record is assigned a thread_id, which is used to replay and remove DDL logs that belong to a particular DDL transaction. DDL transactions that involve multiple data file operations generate multiple DDL log records.

  • type: The DDL operation type. Types include FREE (drop an index tree), DELETE (delete a file), RENAME (rename a file), or DROP (drop metadata from the mysql.innodb_dynamic_metadata data dictionary table).

  • space_id: The tablespace ID.

  • page_no: A page that contains allocation information; an index tree root page, for example.

  • index_id: The index ID.

  • table_id: The table ID.

  • old_file_path: The old tablespace file path. Used by DDL operations that create or drop tablespace files; also used by DDL operations that rename a tablespace.

  • new_file_path: The new tablespace file path. Used by DDL operations that rename tablespace files.

This example demonstrates enabling innodb_print_ddl_logs to view DDL logs written to strderr for a CREATE TABLE operation.

mysql> SET GLOBAL innodb_print_ddl_logs=1;
mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT) ENGINE = InnoDB;
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log insert : [DDL record: DELETE SPACE, id=18, thread_id=7, 
space_id=5, old_file_path=./test/t1.ibd]
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log delete : by id 18
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log insert : [DDL record: REMOVE CACHE, id=19, thread_id=7, 
table_id=1058, new_file_path=test/t1]
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log delete : by id 19
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log insert : [DDL record: FREE, id=20, thread_id=7, 
space_id=5, index_id=132, page_no=4]
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log delete : by id 20
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log post ddl : begin for thread id : 7
[Note] [000000] InnoDB: DDL log post ddl : end for thread id : 7

13.1.2 ALTER DATABASE Syntax

ALTER {DATABASE | SCHEMA} [db_name]
    alter_specification ...

alter_specification:
    [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | DEFAULT ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}

ALTER DATABASE enables you to change the overall characteristics of a database. These characteristics are stored in the data dictionary. To use ALTER DATABASE, you need the ALTER privilege on the database. ALTER SCHEMA is a synonym for ALTER DATABASE.

The database name can be omitted from the first syntax, in which case the statement applies to the default database.

National Language Characteristics

The CHARACTER SET clause changes the default database character set. The COLLATE clause changes the default database collation. Chapter 10, Character Sets, Collations, Unicode, discusses character set and collation names.

You can see what character sets and collations are available using, respectively, the SHOW CHARACTER SET and SHOW COLLATION statements. See Section 13.7.7.3, “SHOW CHARACTER SET Syntax”, and Section 13.7.7.4, “SHOW COLLATION Syntax”, for more information.

If you change the default character set or collation for a database, stored routines that use the database defaults must be dropped and recreated so that they use the new defaults. (In a stored routine, variables with character data types use the database defaults if the character set or collation are not specified explicitly. See Section 13.1.17, “CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax”.)

Encryption

The DEFAULT ENCRYPTION clause, introduced in MySQL 8.0.16, defines the default database encryption, which is inherited by tables created in the database. Changing the default encryption of the database does not alter the encryption of existing tables associated with the schema. Only newly-created tables inherit the default database encryption. An ALTER DATABASE statement executed without a DEFAULT ENCRYPTION clause retains the existing default database encryption. If the table_encryption_privilege_check variable is enabled, the TABLE_ENCRYPTION_ADMIN privilege is required to specify a default encryption setting that differs from the default_table_encryption setting. For more information, see Defining an Encryption Default for Schemas and General Tablespaces.

13.1.3 ALTER EVENT Syntax

ALTER
    [DEFINER = user]
    EVENT event_name
    [ON SCHEDULE schedule]
    [ON COMPLETION [NOT] PRESERVE]
    [RENAME TO new_event_name]
    [ENABLE | DISABLE | DISABLE ON SLAVE]
    [COMMENT 'string']
    [DO event_body]

The ALTER EVENT statement changes one or more of the characteristics of an existing event without the need to drop and recreate it. The syntax for each of the DEFINER, ON SCHEDULE, ON COMPLETION, COMMENT, ENABLE / DISABLE, and DO clauses is exactly the same as when used with CREATE EVENT. (See Section 13.1.13, “CREATE EVENT Syntax”.)

Any user can alter an event defined on a database for which that user has the EVENT privilege. When a user executes a successful ALTER EVENT statement, that user becomes the definer for the affected event.

ALTER EVENT works only with an existing event:

mysql> ALTER EVENT no_such_event 
     >     ON SCHEDULE 
     >       EVERY '2:3' DAY_HOUR;
ERROR 1517 (HY000): Unknown event 'no_such_event'

In each of the following examples, assume that the event named myevent is defined as shown here:

CREATE EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 6 HOUR
    COMMENT 'A sample comment.'
    DO
      UPDATE myschema.mytable SET mycol = mycol + 1;

The following statement changes the schedule for myevent from once every six hours starting immediately to once every twelve hours, starting four hours from the time the statement is run:

ALTER EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 12 HOUR
    STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 4 HOUR;

It is possible to change multiple characteristics of an event in a single statement. This example changes the SQL statement executed by myevent to one that deletes all records from mytable; it also changes the schedule for the event such that it executes once, one day after this ALTER EVENT statement is run.

ALTER EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE
      AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 DAY
    DO
      TRUNCATE TABLE myschema.mytable;

Specify the options in an ALTER EVENT statement only for those characteristics that you want to change; omitted options keep their existing values. This includes any default values for CREATE EVENT such as ENABLE.

To disable myevent, use this ALTER EVENT statement:

ALTER EVENT myevent
    DISABLE;

The ON SCHEDULE clause may use expressions involving built-in MySQL functions and user variables to obtain any of the timestamp or interval values which it contains. You cannot use stored routines or user-defined functions in such expressions, and you cannot use any table references; however, you can use SELECT FROM DUAL. This is true for both ALTER EVENT and CREATE EVENT statements. References to stored routines, user-defined functions, and tables in such cases are specifically not permitted, and fail with an error (see Bug #22830).

Although an ALTER EVENT statement that contains another ALTER EVENT statement in its DO clause appears to succeed, when the server attempts to execute the resulting scheduled event, the execution fails with an error.

To rename an event, use the ALTER EVENT statement's RENAME TO clause. This statement renames the event myevent to yourevent:

ALTER EVENT myevent
    RENAME TO yourevent;

You can also move an event to a different database using ALTER EVENT ... RENAME TO ... and db_name.event_name notation, as shown here:

ALTER EVENT olddb.myevent
    RENAME TO newdb.myevent;

To execute the previous statement, the user executing it must have the EVENT privilege on both the olddb and newdb databases.

Note

There is no RENAME EVENT statement.

The value DISABLE ON SLAVE is used on a replication slave instead of ENABLE or DISABLE to indicate an event that was created on the master and replicated to the slave, but that is not executed on the slave. Normally, DISABLE ON SLAVE is set automatically as required; however, there are some circumstances under which you may want or need to change it manually. See Section 17.5.1.16, “Replication of Invoked Features”, for more information.

13.1.4 ALTER FUNCTION Syntax

ALTER FUNCTION func_name [characteristic ...]

characteristic:
    COMMENT 'string'
  | LANGUAGE SQL
  | { CONTAINS SQL | NO SQL | READS SQL DATA | MODIFIES SQL DATA }
  | SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }

This statement can be used to change the characteristics of a stored function. More than one change may be specified in an ALTER FUNCTION statement. However, you cannot change the parameters or body of a stored function using this statement; to make such changes, you must drop and re-create the function using DROP FUNCTION and CREATE FUNCTION.

You must have the ALTER ROUTINE privilege for the function. (That privilege is granted automatically to the function creator.) If binary logging is enabled, the ALTER FUNCTION statement might also require the SUPER privilege, as described in Section 24.7, “Stored Program Binary Logging”.

13.1.5 ALTER INSTANCE Syntax

ALTER INSTANCE instance_action

instance_action: {
    ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY
  | ROTATE BINLOG MASTER KEY
  | RELOAD TLS [NO ROLLBACK ON ERROR]
}

ALTER INSTANCE defines actions applicable to a MySQL server instance. The statement supports these actions:

  • ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY

    This action rotates the master encryption key used for InnoDB tablespace encryption. Key rotation requires the ENCRYPTION_KEY_ADMIN or SUPER privilege. To perform this action, a keyring plugin must be installed and configured. For instructions, see Section 6.4.4, “The MySQL Keyring”.

    ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY supports concurrent DML. However, it cannot be run concurrently with CREATE TABLE ... ENCRYPTION or ALTER TABLE ... ENCRYPTION operations, and locks are taken to prevent conflicts that could arise from concurrent execution of these statements. If one of the conflicting statements is running, it must complete before another can proceed.

    ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY statements are written to the binary log so that they can be executed on replicated servers.

    For additional ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE INNODB MASTER KEY usage information, see Section 15.6.3.9, “InnoDB Data-at-Rest Encryption”.

  • ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE BINLOG MASTER KEY

    This action rotates the binary log master key used for binary log encryption. Key rotation for the binary log master key requires the BINLOG_ENCRYPTION_ADMIN or SUPER privilege. The statement cannot be used if the binlog_encryption system variable is set to OFF. To perform this action, a keyring plugin must be installed and configured. For instructions, see Section 6.4.4, “The MySQL Keyring”.

    ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE BINLOG MASTER KEY actions are not written to the binary log and are not executed on replication slaves. Binary log master key rotation can therefore be carried out in replication environments including a mix of MySQL versions. To schedule regular rotation of the binary log master key on all applicable master and slave servers, you can enable the MySQL Event Scheduler on each server and issue the ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE BINLOG MASTER KEY statement using a CREATE EVENT statement. If you rotate the binary log master key because you suspect that the current or any of the previous binary log master keys might have been compromised, issue the statement on every applicable master and slave server, which enables you to verify immediate compliance.

    For additional ALTER INSTANCE ROTATE BINLOG MASTER KEY usage information, including what to do if the process does not complete correctly or is interrupted by an unexpected server halt, see Section 17.3.2, “Encrypting Binary Log Files and Relay Log Files”.

  • ALTER INSTANCE RELOAD TLS

    This action reconfigures the SSL context from the current values of the system variables that define the context. It also updates the status variables that reflect the active context values. This action requires the CONNECTION_ADMIN privilege.

    By default, the RELOAD TLS action rolls back with an error and has no effect if the configuration values do not permit creation of a new SSL context. The previous context values continue to be used for new connections.

    If the optional NO ROLLBACK ON ERROR clause is given and a new context cannot be created, rollback does not occur. Instead, a warning is generated and SSL is disabled for new connections.

    ALTER INSTANCE RELOAD TLS statements are not written to the binary log (and thus are not replicated). SSL configuration is local and depends on local files not necessarily present on all servers involved.

    For additional information about reconfiguring the SSL context, including which system and status variables are context-related, see Server-Side Runtime Configuration for Encrypted Connections.

13.1.6 ALTER LOGFILE GROUP Syntax

ALTER LOGFILE GROUP logfile_group
    ADD UNDOFILE 'file_name'
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] size]
    [WAIT]
    ENGINE [=] engine_name

This statement adds an UNDO file named 'file_name' to an existing log file group logfile_group. An ALTER LOGFILE GROUP statement has one and only one ADD UNDOFILE clause. No DROP UNDOFILE clause is currently supported.

Note

All NDB Cluster Disk Data objects share the same namespace. This means that each Disk Data object must be uniquely named (and not merely each Disk Data object of a given type). For example, you cannot have a tablespace and an undo log file with the same name, or an undo log file and a data file with the same name.

The optional INITIAL_SIZE parameter sets the UNDO file's initial size in bytes; if not specified, the initial size defaults to 134217728 (128 MB). You may optionally follow size with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (megabytes) or G (gigabytes). (Bug #13116514, Bug #16104705, Bug #62858)

On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB). (Bug #29186)

The minimum allowed value for INITIAL_SIZE is 1048576 (1 MB). (Bug #29574)

Note

WAIT is parsed but otherwise ignored. This keyword currently has no effect, and is intended for future expansion.

The ENGINE parameter (required) determines the storage engine which is used by this log file group, with engine_name being the name of the storage engine. Currently, the only accepted values for engine_name are NDBCLUSTER and NDB. The two values are equivalent.

Here is an example, which assumes that the log file group lg_3 has already been created using CREATE LOGFILE GROUP (see Section 13.1.16, “CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax”):

ALTER LOGFILE GROUP lg_3
    ADD UNDOFILE 'undo_10.dat'
    INITIAL_SIZE=32M
    ENGINE=NDBCLUSTER;

When ALTER LOGFILE GROUP is used with ENGINE = NDBCLUSTER (alternatively, ENGINE = NDB), an UNDO log file is created on each NDB Cluster data node. You can verify that the UNDO files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. For example:

mysql> SELECT FILE_NAME, LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER, EXTRA
    -> FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
    -> WHERE LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME = 'lg_3';
+-------------+----------------------+----------------+
| FILE_NAME   | LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER | EXTRA          |
+-------------+----------------------+----------------+
| newdata.dat |                    0 | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| newdata.dat |                    0 | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
| undo_10.dat |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| undo_10.dat |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
+-------------+----------------------+----------------+
4 rows in set (0.01 sec)

(See Section 25.11, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table”.)

Memory used for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE comes from the global pool whose size is determined by the value of the SharedGlobalMemory data node configuration parameter. This includes any default value implied for this option by the setting of the InitialLogFileGroup data node configuration parameter.

ALTER LOGFILE GROUP is useful only with Disk Data storage for NDB Cluster. For more information, see Section 22.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”.

13.1.7 ALTER PROCEDURE Syntax

ALTER PROCEDURE proc_name [characteristic ...]

characteristic:
    COMMENT 'string'
  | LANGUAGE SQL
  | { CONTAINS SQL | NO SQL | READS SQL DATA | MODIFIES SQL DATA }
  | SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }

This statement can be used to change the characteristics of a stored procedure. More than one change may be specified in an ALTER PROCEDURE statement. However, you cannot change the parameters or body of a stored procedure using this statement; to make such changes, you must drop and re-create the procedure using DROP PROCEDURE and CREATE PROCEDURE.

You must have the ALTER ROUTINE privilege for the procedure. By default, that privilege is granted automatically to the procedure creator. This behavior can be changed by disabling the automatic_sp_privileges system variable. See Section 24.2.2, “Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges”.

13.1.8 ALTER SERVER Syntax

ALTER SERVER  server_name
    OPTIONS (option [, option] ...)

Alters the server information for server_name, adjusting any of the options permitted in the CREATE SERVER statement. The corresponding fields in the mysql.servers table are updated accordingly. This statement requires the SUPER privilege.

For example, to update the USER option:

ALTER SERVER s OPTIONS (USER 'sally');

ALTER SERVER causes an implicit commit. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

ALTER SERVER is not written to the binary log, regardless of the logging format that is in use.

13.1.9 ALTER TABLE Syntax

ALTER TABLE tbl_name
    [alter_specification [, alter_specification] ...]
    [partition_options]

alter_specification:
    table_options
  | ADD [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
        [FIRST | AFTER col_name]
  | ADD [COLUMN] (col_name column_definition,...)
  | ADD {INDEX|KEY} [index_name]
        [index_type] (key_part,...) [index_option] ...
  | ADD {FULLTEXT|SPATIAL} [INDEX|KEY] [index_name]
        (key_part,...) [index_option] ...
  | ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] PRIMARY KEY
        [index_type] (key_part,...)
        [index_option] ...
  | ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] UNIQUE [INDEX|KEY]
        [index_name] [index_type] (key_part,...)
        [index_option] ...
  | ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
        [index_name] (col_name,...)
        reference_definition
  | ADD check_constraint_definition
  | DROP CHECK symbol
  | ALTER CHECK symbol [NOT] ENFORCED
  | ALGORITHM [=] {DEFAULT|INSTANT|INPLACE|COPY}
  | ALTER [COLUMN] col_name {SET DEFAULT literal | DROP DEFAULT}
  | ALTER INDEX index_name {VISIBLE | INVISIBLE}
  | CHANGE [COLUMN] old_col_name new_col_name column_definition
        [FIRST|AFTER col_name]
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name [COLLATE [=] collation_name]
  | CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET charset_name [COLLATE collation_name]
  | {DISABLE|ENABLE} KEYS
  | {DISCARD|IMPORT} TABLESPACE
  | DROP [COLUMN] col_name
  | DROP {INDEX|KEY} index_name
  | DROP PRIMARY KEY
  | DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_symbol
  | FORCE
  | LOCK [=] {DEFAULT|NONE|SHARED|EXCLUSIVE}
  | MODIFY [COLUMN] col_name column_definition
        [FIRST | AFTER col_name]
  | ORDER BY col_name [, col_name] ...
  | RENAME COLUMN old_col_name TO new_col_name
  | RENAME {INDEX|KEY} old_index_name TO new_index_name
  | RENAME [TO|AS] new_tbl_name
  | {WITHOUT|WITH} VALIDATION

partition_options:
    partition_option [partition_option] ...

partition_option:
    ADD PARTITION (partition_definition)
  | DROP PARTITION partition_names
  | DISCARD PARTITION {partition_names | ALL} TABLESPACE
  | IMPORT PARTITION {partition_names | ALL} TABLESPACE
  | TRUNCATE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | COALESCE PARTITION number
  | REORGANIZE PARTITION partition_names INTO (partition_definitions)
  | EXCHANGE PARTITION partition_name WITH TABLE tbl_name [{WITH|WITHOUT} VALIDATION]
  | ANALYZE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | CHECK PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | OPTIMIZE PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | REBUILD PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | REPAIR PARTITION {partition_names | ALL}
  | REMOVE PARTITIONING

key_part: {col_name [(length)] | (expr)} [ASC | DESC]

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'
  | {VISIBLE | INVISIBLE}

check_constraint_definition:
    [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] CHECK (expr) [[NOT] ENFORCED]

table_options:
    table_option [[,] table_option] ...

table_option:
    AUTO_INCREMENT [=] value
  | AVG_ROW_LENGTH [=] value
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1}
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | COMMENT [=] 'string'
  | COMPRESSION [=] {'ZLIB'|'LZ4'|'NONE'}
  | CONNECTION [=] 'connect_string'
  | {DATA|INDEX} DIRECTORY [=] 'absolute path to directory'
  | DELAY_KEY_WRITE [=] {0 | 1}
  | ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}
  | ENGINE [=] engine_name
  | INSERT_METHOD [=] { NO | FIRST | LAST }
  | KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | MAX_ROWS [=] value
  | MIN_ROWS [=] value
  | PACK_KEYS [=] {0 | 1 | DEFAULT}
  | PASSWORD [=] 'string'
  | ROW_FORMAT [=] {DEFAULT|DYNAMIC|FIXED|COMPRESSED|REDUNDANT|COMPACT}
  | STATS_AUTO_RECALC [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_PERSISTENT [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES [=] value
  | TABLESPACE tablespace_name [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY}]
  | UNION [=] (tbl_name[,tbl_name]...)

partition_options:
    (see CREATE TABLE options)

ALTER TABLE changes the structure of a table. For example, you can add or delete columns, create or destroy indexes, change the type of existing columns, or rename columns or the table itself. You can also change characteristics such as the storage engine used for the table or the table comment.

There are several additional aspects to the ALTER TABLE statement, described under the following topics in this section:

Table Options

table_options signifies table options of the kind that can be used in the CREATE TABLE statement, such as ENGINE, AUTO_INCREMENT, AVG_ROW_LENGTH, MAX_ROWS, ROW_FORMAT, or TABLESPACE.

For descriptions of all table options, see Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”. However, ALTER TABLE ignores DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY when given as table options. ALTER TABLE permits them only as partitioning options, and requires that you have the FILE privilege.

Use of table options with ALTER TABLE provides a convenient way of altering single table characteristics. For example:

  • If t1 is currently not an InnoDB table, this statement changes its storage engine to InnoDB:

    ALTER TABLE t1 ENGINE = InnoDB;
    
  • To change the InnoDB table to use compressed row-storage format:

    ALTER TABLE t1 ROW_FORMAT = COMPRESSED;
    
  • The ENCRYPTION clause enables or disables page-level data encryption for an InnoDB table. A keyring plugin must be installed and configured to enable encryption.

    If the table_encryption_privilege_check variable is enabled, the TABLE_ENCRYPTION_ADMIN privilege is required to use an ENCRYPTION clause with a setting that differs from the default schema encryption setting.

    Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, the ENCRYPTION clause was only supported when altering tables residing in file-per-table tablespaces. As of MySQL 8.0.16, the ENCRYPTION clause is also supported for tables residing in general tablespaces.

    For tables that reside in general tablespaces, table and tablespace encryption must match.

    Altering table encryption by moving a table to a different tablespace or changing the storage engine is not permitted without explicitly specifying an ENCRYPTION clause.

    As of MySQL 8.0.16, specifying an ENCRYPTION clause with a value other than 'N' or '' is not permitted if the table uses storage engine that does not support encryption. Previously, the clause was accepted. Attempting to create a table without an ENCRYPTION clause in an encryption-enabled schema using a storage engine that does not support encryption is also not permitted.

    For more information, see Section 15.6.3.9, “InnoDB Data-at-Rest Encryption”.

  • To reset the current auto-increment value:

    ALTER TABLE t1 AUTO_INCREMENT = 13;
    

    You cannot reset the counter to a value less than or equal to the value that is currently in use. For both InnoDB and MyISAM, if the value is less than or equal to the maximum value currently in the AUTO_INCREMENT column, the value is reset to the current maximum AUTO_INCREMENT column value plus one.

  • To change the default table character set:

    ALTER TABLE t1 CHARACTER SET = utf8;
    

    See also Changing the Character Set.

  • To add (or change) a table comment:

    ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT = 'New table comment';
    
  • Use ALTER TABLE with the TABLESPACE option to move InnoDB tables between existing general tablespaces, file-per-table tablespaces, and the system tablespace. See Moving Tables Between Tablespaces Using ALTER TABLE.

    • ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE operations always cause a full table rebuild, even if the TABLESPACE attribute has not changed from its previous value.

    • ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE syntax does not support moving a table from a temporary tablespace to a persistent tablespace.

    • The DATA DIRECTORY clause, which is supported with CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE, is not supported with ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE, and is ignored if specified.

    • For more information about the capabilities and limitations of the TABLESPACE option, see CREATE TABLE.

  • MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0 supports setting NDB_TABLE options for controlling a table's partition balance (fragment count type), read-from-any-replica capability, full replication, or any combination of these, as part of the table comment for an ALTER TABLE statement in the same manner as for CREATE TABLE, as shown in this example:

    ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT = "NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE";
    

    Bear in mind that ALTER TABLE ... COMMENT ... discards any existing comment for the table. See Setting NDB_TABLE options, for additional information and examples.

To verify that the table options were changed as intended, use SHOW CREATE TABLE, or query the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES table.

Performance and Space Requirements

ALTER TABLE operations are processed using one of the following algorithms:

  • COPY: Operations are performed on a copy of the original table, and table data is copied from the original table to the new table row by row. Concurrent DML is not permitted.

  • INPLACE: Operations avoid copying table data but may rebuild the table in place. An exclusive metadata lock on the table may be taken briefly during preparation and execution phases of the operation. Typically, concurrent DML is supported.

  • INSTANT: Operations only modify metadata in the data dictionary. No exclusive metadata locks are taken on the table during preparation and execution, and table data is unaffected, making operations instantaneous. Concurrent DML is permitted. (Introduced in MySQL 8.0.12)

The ALGORITHM clause is optional. If the ALGORITHM clause is omitted, MySQL uses ALGORITHM=INSTANT for storage engines and ALTER TABLE clauses that support it. Otherwise, ALGORITHM=INPLACE is used. If ALGORITHM=INPLACE is not supported, ALGORITHM=COPY is used.

Specifying an ALGORITHM clause requires the operation to use the specified algorithm for clauses and storage engines that support it, or fail with an error otherwise. Specifying ALGORITHM=DEFAULT is the same as omitting the ALGORITHM clause.

ALTER TABLE operations that use the COPY algorithm wait for other operations that are modifying the table to complete. After alterations are applied to the table copy, data is copied over, the original table is deleted, and the table copy is renamed to the name of the original table. While the ALTER TABLE operation executes, the original table is readable by other sessions (with the exception noted shortly). Updates and writes to the table started after the ALTER TABLE operation begins are stalled until the new table is ready, then are automatically redirected to the new table. The temporary copy of the table is created in the database directory of the original table unless it is a RENAME TO operation that moves the table to a database that resides in a different directory.

The exception referred to earlier is that ALTER TABLE blocks reads (not just writes) at the point where it is ready to clear outdated table structures from the table and table definition caches. At this point, it must acquire an exclusive lock. To do so, it waits for current readers to finish, and blocks new reads and writes.

An ALTER TABLE operation that uses the COPY algorithm prevents concurrent DML operations. Concurrent queries are still allowed. That is, a table-copying operation always includes at least the concurrency restrictions of LOCK=SHARED (allow queries but not DML). You can further restrict concurrency for operations that support the LOCK clause by specifying LOCK=EXCLUSIVE, which prevents DML and queries. For more information, see Concurrency Control.

To force use of the COPY algorithm for an ALTER TABLE operation that would otherwise not use it, specify ALGORITHM=COPY or enable the old_alter_table system variable. If there is a conflict between the old_alter_table setting and an ALGORITHM clause with a value other than DEFAULT, the ALGORITHM clause takes precedence.

For InnoDB tables, an ALTER TABLE operation that uses the COPY algorithm on a table that resides in a shared tablespace can increase the amount of space used by the tablespace. Such operations require as much additional space as the data in the table plus indexes. For a table residing in a shared tablespace, the additional space used during the operation is not released back to the operating system as it is for a table that resides in a file-per-table tablespace.

For information about space requirements for online DDL operations, see Section 15.12.3, “Online DDL Space Requirements”.

ALTER TABLE operations that support the INPLACE algorithm include:

  • ALTER TABLE operations supported by the InnoDB online DDL feature. See Section 15.12.1, “Online DDL Operations”.

  • Renaming a table. MySQL renames files that correspond to the table tbl_name without making a copy. (You can also use the RENAME TABLE statement to rename tables. See Section 13.1.36, “RENAME TABLE Syntax”.) Privileges granted specifically for the renamed table are not migrated to the new name. They must be changed manually.

  • Operations that only modify table metadata. These operations are immediate because the server does not touch table contents. Metadata-only operations include:

    • Renaming a column. In NDB Cluster 8.0.18 and later, this operation can also be performed online.

    • Changing the default value of a column (except for NDB tables).

    • Modifying the definition of an ENUM or SET column by adding new enumeration or set members to the end of the list of valid member values, as long as the storage size of the data type does not change. For example, adding a member to a SET column that has 8 members changes the required storage per value from 1 byte to 2 bytes; this requires a table copy. Adding members in the middle of the list causes renumbering of existing members, which requires a table copy.

    • Changing the definition of a spatial column to remove the SRID attribute. (Adding or changing an SRID attribute does require a rebuild and cannot be done in place because the server must verify that all values have the specified SRID value.)

    • As of MySQL 8.0.14, changing a column character set, when these conditions apply:

      • The column data type is CHAR, VARCHAR, a TEXT type, or ENUM.

      • The character set change is from utf8mb3 to utf8mb4, or any character set to binary.

      • There is no index on the column.

    • As of MySQL 8.0.14, changing a generated column, when these conditions apply:

      • For InnoDB tables, statements that modify generated stored columns but do not change their type, expression, or nullability.

      • For non-InnoDB tables, statements that modify generated stored or virtual columns but do not change their type, expression, or nullability.

      An example of such a change is a change to the column comment.

  • Renaming an index.

  • Adding or dropping a secondary index, for InnoDB and NDB tables. See Section 15.12.1, “Online DDL Operations”.

  • For NDB tables, operations that add and drop indexes on variable-width columns. These operations occur online, without table copying and without blocking concurrent DML actions for most of their duration. See Section 22.5.14, “Online Operations with ALTER TABLE in NDB Cluster”.

  • Modifying index visibility with an ALTER INDEX operation.

  • Column modifications of tables containing generated columns that depend on columns with a DEFAULT value if the modified columns are not involved in the generated column expressions. For example, changing the NULL property of a separate column can be done in place without a table rebuild.

ALTER TABLE operations that support the INSTANT algorithm include:

  • Adding a column. This feature is referred to as Instant ADD COLUMN. Limitations apply. See Section 15.12.1, “Online DDL Operations”.

  • Adding or dropping a virtual column.

  • Adding or dropping a column default value.

  • Modifying the definition of an ENUM or SET column. The same restrictions apply as described above for ALGORITHM=INSTANT.

  • Changing the index type.

  • Renaming a table. The same restrictions apply as described above for ALGORITHM=INSTANT.

For more information about operations that support ALGORITHM=INSTANT, see Section 15.12.1, “Online DDL Operations”.

ALTER TABLE upgrades MySQL 5.5 temporal columns to 5.6 format for ADD COLUMN, CHANGE COLUMN, MODIFY COLUMN, ADD INDEX, and FORCE operations. This conversion cannot be done using the INPLACE algorithm because the table must be rebuilt, so specifying ALGORITHM=INPLACE in these cases results in an error. Specify ALGORITHM=COPY if necessary.

If an ALTER TABLE operation on a multicolumn index used to partition a table by KEY changes the order of the columns, it can only be performed using ALGORITHM=COPY.

The WITHOUT VALIDATION and WITH VALIDATION clauses affect whether ALTER TABLE performs an in-place operation for virtual generated column modifications. See Section 13.1.9.2, “ALTER TABLE and Generated Columns”.

NDB Cluster 8.0 supports online operations using the same ALGORITHM=INPLACE syntax used with the standard MySQL Server. See Section 22.5.14, “Online Operations with ALTER TABLE in NDB Cluster”, for more information.

ALTER TABLE with DISCARD ... PARTITION ... TABLESPACE or IMPORT ... PARTITION ... TABLESPACE does not create any temporary tables or temporary partition files.

ALTER TABLE with ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, COALESCE PARTITION, REBUILD PARTITION, or REORGANIZE PARTITION does not create temporary tables (except when used with NDB tables); however, these operations can and do create temporary partition files.

ADD or DROP operations for RANGE or LIST partitions are immediate operations or nearly so. ADD or COALESCE operations for HASH or KEY partitions copy data between all partitions, unless LINEAR HASH or LINEAR KEY was used; this is effectively the same as creating a new table, although the ADD or COALESCE operation is performed partition by partition. REORGANIZE operations copy only changed partitions and do not touch unchanged ones.

For MyISAM tables, you can speed up index re-creation (the slowest part of the alteration process) by setting the myisam_sort_buffer_size system variable to a high value.

Concurrency Control

For ALTER TABLE operations that support it, you can use the LOCK clause to control the level of concurrent reads and writes on a table while it is being altered. Specifying a non-default value for this clause enables you to require a certain amount of concurrent access or exclusivity during the alter operation, and halts the operation if the requested degree of locking is not available.

Only LOCK = DEFAULT is permitted for operations that use ALGORITHM=INSTANT. The other LOCK clause parameters are not applicable.

The parameters for the LOCK clause are:

  • LOCK = DEFAULT
    

    Maximum level of concurrency for the given ALGORITHM clause (if any) and ALTER TABLE operation: Permit concurrent reads and writes if supported. If not, permit concurrent reads if supported. If not, enforce exclusive access.

  • LOCK = NONE
    

    If supported, permit concurrent reads and writes. Otherwise, an error occurs.

  • LOCK = SHARED
    

    If supported, permit concurrent reads but block writes. Writes are blocked even if concurrent writes are supported by the storage engine for the given ALGORITHM clause (if any) and ALTER TABLE operation. If concurrent reads are not supported, an error occurs.

  • LOCK = EXCLUSIVE
    

    Enforce exclusive access. This is done even if concurrent reads/writes are supported by the storage engine for the given ALGORITHM clause (if any) and ALTER TABLE operation.

Adding and Dropping Columns

Use ADD to add new columns to a table, and DROP to remove existing columns. DROP col_name is a MySQL extension to standard SQL.

To add a column at a specific position within a table row, use FIRST or AFTER col_name. The default is to add the column last.

If a table contains only one column, the column cannot be dropped. If what you intend is to remove the table, use the DROP TABLE statement instead.

If columns are dropped from a table, the columns are also removed from any index of which they are a part. If all columns that make up an index are dropped, the index is dropped as well. If you use CHANGE or MODIFY to shorten a column for which an index exists on the column, and the resulting column length is less than the index length, MySQL shortens the index automatically.

For ALTER TABLE ... ADD, if the column has an expression default value that uses a nondeterministic function, the statement may produce a warning or error. For details, see Section 17.1.3.6, “Restrictions on Replication with GTIDs”.

Renaming, Redefining, and Reordering Columns

The CHANGE, MODIFY, RENAME COLUMN, and ALTER clauses enable the names and definitions of existing columns to be altered. They have these comparative characteristics:

  • CHANGE:

    • Can rename a column and change its definition, or both.

    • Has more capability than MODIFY or RENAME COLUMN, but at the expense of convenience for some operations. CHANGE requires naming the column twice if not renaming it, and requires respecifying the column definition if only renaming it.

    • With FIRST or AFTER, can reorder columns.

  • MODIFY:

    • Can change a column definition but not its name.

    • More convenient than CHANGE to change a column definition without renaming it.

    • With FIRST or AFTER, can reorder columns.

  • RENAME COLUMN:

    • Can change a column name but not its definition.

    • More convenient than CHANGE to rename a column without changing its definition.

  • ALTER: Used only to change a column default value.

CHANGE is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. MODIFY and RENAME COLUMN are MySQL extensions for Oracle compatibility.

To alter a column to change both its name and definition, use CHANGE, specifying the old and new names and the new definition. For example, to rename an INT NOT NULL column from a to b and change its definition to use the BIGINT data type while retaining the NOT NULL attribute, do this:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE a b BIGINT NOT NULL;

To change a column definition but not its name, use CHANGE or MODIFY. With CHANGE, the syntax requires two column names, so you must specify the same name twice to leave the name unchanged. For example, to change the definition of column b, do this:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE b b INT NOT NULL;

MODIFY is more convenient to change the definition without changing the name because it requires the column name only once:

ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY b INT NOT NULL;

To change a column name but not its definition, use CHANGE or RENAME COLUMN. With CHANGE, the syntax requires a column definition, so to leave the definition unchanged, you must respecify the definition the column currently has. For example, to rename an INT NOT NULL column from b to a, do this:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE b a INT NOT NULL;

RENAME COLUMN is more convenient to change the name without changing the definition because it requires only the old and new names:

ALTER TABLE t1 RENAME COLUMN b TO a;

In general, you cannot rename a column to a name that already exists in the table. However, this is sometimes not the case, such as when you swap names or move them through a cycle. If a table has columns named a, b, and c, these are valid operations:

-- swap a and b
ALTER TABLE t1 RENAME COLUMN a TO b,
               RENAME COLUMN b TO a;
-- "rotate" a, b, c through a cycle
ALTER TABLE t1 RENAME COLUMN a TO b,
               RENAME COLUMN b TO c,
               RENAME COLUMN c TO a;

For column definition changes using CHANGE or MODIFY, the definition must include the data type and all attributes that should apply to the new column, other than index attributes such as PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE. Attributes present in the original definition but not specified for the new definition are not carried forward. Suppose that a column col1 is defined as INT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 1 COMMENT 'my column' and you modify the column as follows, intending to change only INT to BIGINT:

ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY col1 BIGINT;

That statement changes the data type from INT to BIGINT, but it also drops the UNSIGNED, DEFAULT, and COMMENT attributes. To retain them, the statement must include them explicitly:

ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY col1 BIGINT UNSIGNED DEFAULT 1 COMMENT 'my column';

For data type changes using CHANGE or MODIFY, MySQL tries to convert existing column values to the new type as well as possible.

Warning

This conversion may result in alteration of data. For example, if you shorten a string column, values may be truncated. To prevent the operation from succeeding if conversions to the new data type would result in loss of data, enable strict SQL mode before using ALTER TABLE (see Section 5.1.11, “Server SQL Modes”).

If you use CHANGE or MODIFY to shorten a column for which an index exists on the column, and the resulting column length is less than the index length, MySQL shortens the index automatically.

For columns renamed by CHANGE or RENAME COLUMN, MySQL automatically renames these references to the renamed column:

  • Indexes that refer to the old column, including invisible indexes and disabled MyISAM indexes.

  • Foreign keys that refer to the old column.

For columns renamed by CHANGE or RENAME COLUMN, MySQL does not automatically rename these references to the renamed column:

  • Generated column and partition expressions that refer to the renamed column. You must use CHANGE to redefine such expressions in the same ALTER TABLE statement as the one that renames the column.

  • Views and stored programs that refer to the renamed column. You must manually alter the definition of these objects to refer to the new column name.

To reorder columns within a table, use FIRST and AFTER in CHANGE or MODIFY operations.

ALTER ... SET DEFAULT or ALTER ... DROP DEFAULT specify a new default value for a column or remove the old default value, respectively. If the old default is removed and the column can be NULL, the new default is NULL. If the column cannot be NULL, MySQL assigns a default value as described in Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”.

Primary Keys and Indexes

DROP PRIMARY KEY drops the primary key. If there is no primary key, an error occurs. For information about the performance characteristics of primary keys, especially for InnoDB tables, see Section 8.3.2, “Primary Key Optimization”.

If you add a UNIQUE INDEX or PRIMARY KEY to a table, MySQL stores it before any nonunique index to permit detection of duplicate keys as early as possible.

DROP INDEX removes an index. This is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. See Section 13.1.27, “DROP INDEX Syntax”. To determine index names, use SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name.

Some storage engines permit you to specify an index type when creating an index. The syntax for the index_type specifier is USING type_name. For details about USING, see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”. The preferred position is after the column list. Support for use of the option before the column list will be removed in a future MySQL release.

index_option values specify additional options for an index. USING is one such option. For details about permissible index_option values, see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”.

RENAME INDEX old_index_name TO new_index_name renames an index. This is a MySQL extension to standard SQL. The content of the table remains unchanged. old_index_name must be the name of an existing index in the table that is not dropped by the same ALTER TABLE statement. new_index_name is the new index name, which cannot duplicate the name of an index in the resulting table after changes have been applied. Neither index name can be PRIMARY.

If you use ALTER TABLE on a MyISAM table, all nonunique indexes are created in a separate batch (as for REPAIR TABLE). This should make ALTER TABLE much faster when you have many indexes.

For MyISAM tables, key updating can be controlled explicitly. Use ALTER TABLE ... DISABLE KEYS to tell MySQL to stop updating nonunique indexes. Then use ALTER TABLE ... ENABLE KEYS to re-create missing indexes. MyISAM does this with a special algorithm that is much faster than inserting keys one by one, so disabling keys before performing bulk insert operations should give a considerable speedup. Using ALTER TABLE ... DISABLE KEYS requires the INDEX privilege in addition to the privileges mentioned earlier.

While the nonunique indexes are disabled, they are ignored for statements such as SELECT and EXPLAIN that otherwise would use them.

After an ALTER TABLE statement, it may be necessary to run ANALYZE TABLE to update index cardinality information. See Section 13.7.7.22, “SHOW INDEX Syntax”.

The ALTER INDEX operation permits an index to be made visible or invisible. An invisible index is not used by the optimizer. Modification of index visibility applies to indexes other than primary keys (either explicit or implicit). This feature is storage engine neutral (supported for any engine). For more information, see Section 8.3.12, “Invisible Indexes”.

Foreign Keys and Other Constraints

The FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES clauses are supported by the InnoDB and NDB storage engines, which implement ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY [index_name] (...) REFERENCES ... (...). See Section 15.6.1.5, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. For other storage engines, the clauses are parsed but ignored.

For ALTER TABLE, unlike CREATE TABLE, ADD FOREIGN KEY ignores index_name if given and uses an automatically generated foreign key name. As a workaround, include the CONSTRAINT clause to specify the foreign key name:

ADD CONSTRAINT name FOREIGN KEY (....) ...
Important

MySQL silently ignores inline REFERENCES specifications, where the references are defined as part of the column specification. MySQL accepts only REFERENCES clauses defined as part of a separate FOREIGN KEY specification.

Note

Partitioned InnoDB tables do not support foreign keys. This restriction does not apply to NDB tables, including those explicitly partitioned by [LINEAR] KEY. For more information, see Section 23.6.2, “Partitioning Limitations Relating to Storage Engines”.

MySQL Server and NDB Cluster both support the use of ALTER TABLE to drop foreign keys:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_symbol;

Adding and dropping a foreign key in the same ALTER TABLE statement is supported for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE but not for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=COPY.

The server prohibits changes to foreign key columns that have the potential to cause loss of referential integrity. A workaround is to use ALTER TABLE ... DROP FOREIGN KEY before changing the column definition and ALTER TABLE ... ADD FOREIGN KEY afterward. Examples of prohibited changes include:

  • Changes to the data type of foreign key columns that may be unsafe. For example, changing VARCHAR(20) to VARCHAR(30) is permitted, but changing it to VARCHAR(1024) is not because that alters the number of length bytes required to store individual values.

  • Changing a NULL column to NOT NULL in non-strict mode is prohibited to prevent converting NULL values to default non-NULL values, for which there are no corresponding values in the referenced table. The operation is permitted in strict mode, but an error is returned if any such conversion is required.

ALTER TABLE tbl_name RENAME new_tbl_name changes internally generated foreign key constraint names and user-defined foreign key constraint names that begin with the string tbl_name_ibfk_ to reflect the new table name. InnoDB interprets foreign key constraint names that begin with the string tbl_name_ibfk_ as internally generated names.

Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, ALTER TABLE permits only the following limited version of CHECK constraint-adding syntax, which is parsed and ignored:

ADD CHECK (expr)

As of MySQL 8.0.16, ALTER TABLE permits CHECK constraints for existing tables to be added, dropped, or altered:

  • Add a new constraint:

    ALTER TABLE tbl_name
        ADD CONSTRAINT [symbol] CHECK (expr) [[NOT] ENFORCED];
    

    The meaning of constraint syntax elements is the same as for CREATE TABLE. See Section 13.1.20.7, “CHECK Constraints”.

  • Drop an existing constraint named symbol:

    ALTER TABLE tbl_name
        DROP CHECK symbol;
    
  • Alter whether an existing constraint named symbol is enforced:

    ALTER TABLE tbl_name
        ALTER CHECK symbol [NOT] ENFORCED;
    

The DROP CHECK and ALTER CHECK clauses are MySQL extensions to standard SQL.

If a table alteration causes a violation of an enforced CHECK constraint, an error occurs and the table is not modified. Examples of operations for which an error occurs:

  • Attempts to add the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute to a column that is used in a CHECK constraint.

  • Attempts to add an enforced CHECK constraint or enforce a nonenforced CHECK constraint for which existing rows violate the constraint condition.

  • Attempts to modify, rename, or drop a column that is used in a CHECK constraint, unless that constraint is also dropped in the same statement. Exception: If a CHECK constraint refers only to a single column, dropping the column automatically drops the constraint.

ALTER TABLE tbl_name RENAME new_tbl_name changes internally generated and user-defined CHECK constraint names that begin with the string tbl_name_chk_ to reflect the new table name. MySQL interprets CHECK constraint names that begin with the string tbl_name_chk_ as internally generated names.

Changing the Character Set

To change the table default character set and all character columns (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT) to a new character set, use a statement like this:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET charset_name;

The statement also changes the collation of all character columns. If you specify no COLLATE clause to indicate which collation to use, the statement uses default collation for the character set. If this collation is inappropriate for the intended table use (for example, if it would change from a case-sensitive collation to a case-insensitive collation), specify a collation explicitly.

For a column that has a data type of VARCHAR or one of the TEXT types, CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET changes the data type as necessary to ensure that the new column is long enough to store as many characters as the original column. For example, a TEXT column has two length bytes, which store the byte-length of values in the column, up to a maximum of 65,535. For a latin1 TEXT column, each character requires a single byte, so the column can store up to 65,535 characters. If the column is converted to utf8, each character might require up to three bytes, for a maximum possible length of 3 × 65,535 = 196,605 bytes. That length does not fit in a TEXT column's length bytes, so MySQL converts the data type to MEDIUMTEXT, which is the smallest string type for which the length bytes can record a value of 196,605. Similarly, a VARCHAR column might be converted to MEDIUMTEXT.

To avoid data type changes of the type just described, do not use CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET. Instead, use MODIFY to change individual columns. For example:

ALTER TABLE t MODIFY latin1_text_col TEXT CHARACTER SET utf8;
ALTER TABLE t MODIFY latin1_varchar_col VARCHAR(M) CHARACTER SET utf8;

If you specify CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET binary, the CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns are converted to their corresponding binary string types (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB). This means that the columns no longer will have a character set and a subsequent CONVERT TO operation will not apply to them.

If charset_name is DEFAULT in a CONVERT TO CHARACTER SET operation, the character set named by the character_set_database system variable is used.

Warning

The CONVERT TO operation converts column values between the original and named character sets. This is not what you want if you have a column in one character set (like latin1) but the stored values actually use some other, incompatible character set (like utf8). In this case, you have to do the following for each such column:

ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE c1 c1 BLOB;
ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE c1 c1 TEXT CHARACTER SET utf8;

The reason this works is that there is no conversion when you convert to or from BLOB columns.

To change only the default character set for a table, use this statement:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name DEFAULT CHARACTER SET charset_name;

The word DEFAULT is optional. The default character set is the character set that is used if you do not specify the character set for columns that you add to a table later (for example, with ALTER TABLE ... ADD column).

When the foreign_key_checks system variable is enabled, which is the default setting, character set conversion is not permitted on tables that include a character string column used in a foreign key constraint. The workaround is to disable foreign_key_checks before performing the character set conversion. You must perform the conversion on both tables involved in the foreign key constraint before re-enabling foreign_key_checks. If you re-enable foreign_key_checks after converting only one of the tables, an ON DELETE CASCADE or ON UPDATE CASCADE operation could corrupt data in the referencing table due to implicit conversion that occurs during these operations (Bug #45290, Bug #74816).

Discarding and Importing InnoDB Tablespaces

An InnoDB table created in its own file-per-table tablespace can be discarded and imported using the DISCARD TABLESPACE and IMPORT TABLESPACE options. These options can be used to import a file-per-table tablespace from a backup or to copy a file-per-table tablespace from one database server to another. See Section 15.6.3.7, “Copying Tablespaces to Another Instance”.

Row Order for MyISAM Tables

ORDER BY enables you to create the new table with the rows in a specific order. This option is useful primarily when you know that you query the rows in a certain order most of the time. By using this option after major changes to the table, you might be able to get higher performance. In some cases, it might make sorting easier for MySQL if the table is in order by the column that you want to order it by later.

Note

The table does not remain in the specified order after inserts and deletes.

ORDER BY syntax permits one or more column names to be specified for sorting, each of which optionally can be followed by ASC or DESC to indicate ascending or descending sort order, respectively. The default is ascending order. Only column names are permitted as sort criteria; arbitrary expressions are not permitted. This clause should be given last after any other clauses.

ORDER BY does not make sense for InnoDB tables because InnoDB always orders table rows according to the clustered index.

When used on a partitioned table, ALTER TABLE ... ORDER BY orders rows within each partition only.

Partitioning Options

partition_options signifies options that can be used with partitioned tables for repartitioning, to add, drop, discard, import, merge, and split partitions, and to perform partitioning maintenance.

It is possible for an ALTER TABLE statement to contain a PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause in an addition to other alter specifications, but the PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause must be specified last after any other specifications. The ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, DISCARD PARTITION, IMPORT PARTITION, COALESCE PARTITION, REORGANIZE PARTITION, EXCHANGE PARTITION, ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION options cannot be combined with other alter specifications in a single ALTER TABLE, since the options just listed act on individual partitions.

For more information about partition options, see Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”, and Section 13.1.9.1, “ALTER TABLE Partition Operations”. For information about and examples of ALTER TABLE ... EXCHANGE PARTITION statements, see Section 23.3.3, “Exchanging Partitions and Subpartitions with Tables”.

13.1.9.1 ALTER TABLE Partition Operations

Partitioning-related clauses for ALTER TABLE can be used with partitioned tables for repartitioning, to add, drop, discard, import, merge, and split partitions, and to perform partitioning maintenance.

  • Simply using a partition_options clause with ALTER TABLE on a partitioned table repartitions the table according to the partitioning scheme defined by the partition_options. This clause always begins with PARTITION BY, and follows the same syntax and other rules as apply to the partition_options clause for CREATE TABLE (for more detailed information, see Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”), and can also be used to partition an existing table that is not already partitioned. For example, consider a (nonpartitioned) table defined as shown here:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        id INT,
        year_col INT
    );
    

    This table can be partitioned by HASH, using the id column as the partitioning key, into 8 partitions by means of this statement:

    ALTER TABLE t1
        PARTITION BY HASH(id)
        PARTITIONS 8;
    

    MySQL supports an ALGORITHM option with [SUB]PARTITION BY [LINEAR] KEY. ALGORITHM=1 causes the server to use the same key-hashing functions as MySQL 5.1 when computing the placement of rows in partitions; ALGORITHM=2 means that the server employs the key-hashing functions implemented and used by default for new KEY partitioned tables in MySQL 5.5 and later. (Partitioned tables created with the key-hashing functions employed in MySQL 5.5 and later cannot be used by a MySQL 5.1 server.) Not specifying the option has the same effect as using ALGORITHM=2. This option is intended for use chiefly when upgrading or downgrading [LINEAR] KEY partitioned tables between MySQL 5.1 and later MySQL versions, or for creating tables partitioned by KEY or LINEAR KEY on a MySQL 5.5 or later server which can be used on a MySQL 5.1 server.

    The table that results from using an ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY statement must follow the same rules as one created using CREATE TABLE ... PARTITION BY. This includes the rules governing the relationship between any unique keys (including any primary key) that the table might have, and the column or columns used in the partitioning expression, as discussed in Section 23.6.1, “Partitioning Keys, Primary Keys, and Unique Keys”. The CREATE TABLE ... PARTITION BY rules for specifying the number of partitions also apply to ALTER TABLE ... PARTITION BY.

    The partition_definition clause for ALTER TABLE ADD PARTITION supports the same options as the clause of the same name for the CREATE TABLE statement. (See Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”, for the syntax and description.) Suppose that you have the partitioned table created as shown here:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        id INT,
        year_col INT
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE (year_col) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1991),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1995),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (1999)
    );
    

    You can add a new partition p3 to this table for storing values less than 2002 as follows:

    ALTER TABLE t1 ADD PARTITION (PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (2002));
    

    DROP PARTITION can be used to drop one or more RANGE or LIST partitions. This statement cannot be used with HASH or KEY partitions; instead, use COALESCE PARTITION (see later in this section). Any data that was stored in the dropped partitions named in the partition_names list is discarded. For example, given the table t1 defined previously, you can drop the partitions named p0 and p1 as shown here:

    ALTER TABLE t1 DROP PARTITION p0, p1;
    
    Note

    DROP PARTITION does not work with tables that use the NDB storage engine. See Section 23.3.1, “Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions”, and Section 22.1.7, “Known Limitations of NDB Cluster”.

    ADD PARTITION and DROP PARTITION do not currently support IF [NOT] EXISTS.

    The DISCARD PARTITION ... TABLESPACE and IMPORT PARTITION ... TABLESPACE options extend the Transportable Tablespace feature to individual InnoDB table partitions. Each InnoDB table partition has its own tablespace file (.ibd file). The Transportable Tablespace feature makes it easy to copy the tablespaces from a running MySQL server instance to another running instance, or to perform a restore on the same instance. Both options take a comma-separated list of one or more partition names. For example:

    ALTER TABLE t1 DISCARD PARTITION p2, p3 TABLESPACE;
    
    ALTER TABLE t1 IMPORT PARTITION p2, p3 TABLESPACE;
    

    When running DISCARD PARTITION ... TABLESPACE and IMPORT PARTITION ... TABLESPACE on subpartitioned tables, both partition and subpartition names are allowed. When a partition name is specified, subpartitions of that partition are included.

    The Transportable Tablespace feature also supports copying or restoring partitioned InnoDB tables (all partitions at once). For additional information, see Section 15.6.3.7, “Copying Tablespaces to Another Instance”, as well as, Section 15.6.3.7.1, “Transportable Tablespace Examples”.

    Renames of partitioned tables are supported. You can rename individual partitions indirectly using ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION; however, this operation copies the partition's data.

    To delete rows from selected partitions, use the TRUNCATE PARTITION option. This option takes a list of one or more comma-separated partition names. Consider the table t1 created by this statement:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        id INT,
        year_col INT
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE (year_col) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1991),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1995),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (1999),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (2003),
        PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (2007)
    );
    

    To delete all rows from partition p0, use the following statement:

    ALTER TABLE t1 TRUNCATE PARTITION p0;
    

    The statement just shown has the same effect as the following DELETE statement:

    DELETE FROM t1 WHERE year_col < 1991;
    

    When truncating multiple partitions, the partitions do not have to be contiguous: This can greatly simplify delete operations on partitioned tables that would otherwise require very complex WHERE conditions if done with DELETE statements. For example, this statement deletes all rows from partitions p1 and p3:

    ALTER TABLE t1 TRUNCATE PARTITION p1, p3;
    

    An equivalent DELETE statement is shown here:

    DELETE FROM t1 WHERE
        (year_col >= 1991 AND year_col < 1995)
        OR
        (year_col >= 2003 AND year_col < 2007);
    

    If you use the ALL keyword in place of the list of partition names, the statement acts on all table partitions.

    TRUNCATE PARTITION merely deletes rows; it does not alter the definition of the table itself, or of any of its partitions.

    To verify that the rows were dropped, check the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS table, using a query such as this one:

    SELECT PARTITION_NAME, TABLE_ROWS
        FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.PARTITIONS
        WHERE TABLE_NAME = 't1';
    

    COALESCE PARTITION can be used with a table that is partitioned by HASH or KEY to reduce the number of partitions by number. Suppose that you have created table t2 as follows:

    CREATE TABLE t2 (
        name VARCHAR (30),
        started DATE
    )
    PARTITION BY HASH( YEAR(started) )
    PARTITIONS 6;
    

    To reduce the number of partitions used by t2 from 6 to 4, use the following statement:

    ALTER TABLE t2 COALESCE PARTITION 2;
    

    The data contained in the last number partitions will be merged into the remaining partitions. In this case, partitions 4 and 5 will be merged into the first 4 partitions (the partitions numbered 0, 1, 2, and 3).

    To change some but not all the partitions used by a partitioned table, you can use REORGANIZE PARTITION. This statement can be used in several ways:

    • To merge a set of partitions into a single partition. This is done by naming several partitions in the partition_names list and supplying a single definition for partition_definition.

    • To split an existing partition into several partitions. Accomplish this by naming a single partition for partition_names and providing multiple partition_definitions.

    • To change the ranges for a subset of partitions defined using VALUES LESS THAN or the value lists for a subset of partitions defined using VALUES IN.

    Note

    For partitions that have not been explicitly named, MySQL automatically provides the default names p0, p1, p2, and so on. The same is true with regard to subpartitions.

    For more detailed information about and examples of ALTER TABLE ... REORGANIZE PARTITION statements, see Section 23.3.1, “Management of RANGE and LIST Partitions”.

  • To exchange a table partition or subpartition with a table, use the ALTER TABLE ... EXCHANGE PARTITION statement—that is, to move any existing rows in the partition or subpartition to the nonpartitioned table, and any existing rows in the nonpartitioned table to the table partition or subpartition.

    For usage information and examples, see Section 23.3.3, “Exchanging Partitions and Subpartitions with Tables”.

  • Several options provide partition maintenance and repair functionality analogous to that implemented for nonpartitioned tables by statements such as CHECK TABLE and REPAIR TABLE (which are also supported for partitioned tables; for more information, see Section 13.7.3, “Table Maintenance Statements”). These include ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, OPTIMIZE PARTITION, REBUILD PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION. Each of these options takes a partition_names clause consisting of one or more names of partitions, separated by commas. The partitions must already exist in the target table. You can also use the ALL keyword in place of partition_names, in which case the statement acts on all table partitions. For more information and examples, see Section 23.3.4, “Maintenance of Partitions”.

    InnoDB does not currently support per-partition optimization; ALTER TABLE ... OPTIMIZE PARTITION causes the entire table to rebuilt and analyzed, and an appropriate warning to be issued. (Bug #11751825, Bug #42822) To work around this problem, use ALTER TABLE ... REBUILD PARTITION and ALTER TABLE ... ANALYZE PARTITION instead.

    The ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, OPTIMIZE PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION options are not supported for tables which are not partitioned.

  • REMOVE PARTITIONING enables you to remove a table's partitioning without otherwise affecting the table or its data. This option can be combined with other ALTER TABLE options such as those used to add, drop, or rename columns or indexes.

  • Using the ENGINE option with ALTER TABLE changes the storage engine used by the table without affecting the partitioning. The target storage engine must provide its own partitioning handler. Only the InnoDB and NDB storage engines have native partitioning handlers; NDB is not currently supported in MySQL 8.0.

It is possible for an ALTER TABLE statement to contain a PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause in an addition to other alter specifications, but the PARTITION BY or REMOVE PARTITIONING clause must be specified last after any other specifications.

The ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, COALESCE PARTITION, REORGANIZE PARTITION, ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, and REPAIR PARTITION options cannot be combined with other alter specifications in a single ALTER TABLE, since the options just listed act on individual partitions. For more information, see Section 13.1.9.1, “ALTER TABLE Partition Operations”.

Only a single instance of any one of the following options can be used in a given ALTER TABLE statement: PARTITION BY, ADD PARTITION, DROP PARTITION, TRUNCATE PARTITION, EXCHANGE PARTITION, REORGANIZE PARTITION, or COALESCE PARTITION, ANALYZE PARTITION, CHECK PARTITION, OPTIMIZE PARTITION, REBUILD PARTITION, REMOVE PARTITIONING.

For example, the following two statements are invalid:

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1, ANALYZE PARTITION p2;

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1, CHECK PARTITION p2;

In the first case, you can analyze partitions p1 and p2 of table t1 concurrently using a single statement with a single ANALYZE PARTITION option that lists both of the partitions to be analyzed, like this:

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1, p2;

In the second case, it is not possible to perform ANALYZE and CHECK operations on different partitions of the same table concurrently. Instead, you must issue two separate statements, like this:

ALTER TABLE t1 ANALYZE PARTITION p1;
ALTER TABLE t1 CHECK PARTITION p2;

REBUILD operations are currently unsupported for subpartitions. The REBUILD keyword is expressly disallowed with subpartitions, and causes ALTER TABLE to fail with an error if so used.

CHECK PARTITION and REPAIR PARTITION operations fail when the partition to be checked or repaired contains any duplicate key errors.

For more information about these statements, see Section 23.3.4, “Maintenance of Partitions”.

13.1.9.2 ALTER TABLE and Generated Columns

ALTER TABLE operations permitted for generated columns are ADD, MODIFY, and CHANGE.

  • Generated columns can be added.

    CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT);
    ALTER TABLE t1 ADD COLUMN c2 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) STORED;            
    
  • The data type and expression of generated columns can be modified.

    CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT, c2 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) STORED);
    ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY COLUMN c2 TINYINT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 5) STORED;
    
  • Generated columns can be renamed or dropped, if no other column refers to them.

    CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT, c2 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) STORED);
    ALTER TABLE t1 CHANGE c2 c3 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) STORED;
    ALTER TABLE t1 DROP COLUMN c3;            
    
  • Virtual generated columns cannot be altered to stored generated columns, or vice versa. To work around this, drop the column, then add it with the new definition.

    CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT, c2 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) VIRTUAL);
    ALTER TABLE t1 DROP COLUMN c2;
    ALTER TABLE t1 ADD COLUMN c2 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) STORED;           
    
  • Nongenerated columns can be altered to stored but not virtual generated columns.

    CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT, c2 INT);
    ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY COLUMN c2 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) STORED;            
    
  • Stored but not virtual generated columns can be altered to nongenerated columns. The stored generated values become the values of the nongenerated column.

    CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT, c2 INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c1 + 1) STORED);
    ALTER TABLE t1 MODIFY COLUMN c2 INT;            
    
  • ADD COLUMN is not an in-place operation for stored columns (done without using a temporary table) because the expression must be evaluated by the server. For stored columns, indexing changes are done in place, and expression changes are not done in place. Changes to column comments are done in place.

  • For non-partitioned tables, ADD COLUMN and DROP COLUMN are in-place operations for virtual columns. However, adding or dropping a virtual column cannot be performed in place in combination with other ALTER TABLE operations.

    For partitioned tables, ADD COLUMN and DROP COLUMN are not in-place operations for virtual columns.

  • InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual generated columns. Adding or dropping a secondary index on a virtual generated column is an in-place operation. For more information, see Section 13.1.20.10, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

  • When a VIRTUAL generated column is added to a table or modified, it is not ensured that data being calculated by the generated column expression will not be out of range for the column. This can lead to inconsistent data being returned and unexpectedly failed statements. To permit control over whether validation occurs for such columns, ALTER TABLE supports WITHOUT VALIDATION and WITH VALIDATION clauses:

    • With WITHOUT VALIDATION (the default if neither clause is specified), an in-place operation is performed (if possible), data integrity is not checked, and the statement finishes more quickly. However, later reads from the table might report warnings or errors for the column if values are out of range.

    • With WITH VALIDATION, ALTER TABLE copies the table. If an out-of-range or any other error occurs, the statement fails. Because a table copy is performed, the statement takes longer.

    WITHOUT VALIDATION and WITH VALIDATION are permitted only with ADD COLUMN, CHANGE COLUMN, and MODIFY COLUMN operations. Otherwise, an ER_WRONG_USAGE error occurs.

  • If expression evaluation causes truncation or provides incorrect input to a function, the ALTER TABLE statement terminates with an error and the DDL operation is rejected.

  • An ALTER TABLE statement that changes the default value of a column col_name may also change the value of a generated column expression that refers to the column using col_name, which may change the value of a generated column expression that refers to the column using DEFAULT(col_name). For this reason, ALTER TABLE operations that change the definition of a column cause a table rebuild if any generated column expression uses DEFAULT().

13.1.9.3 ALTER TABLE Examples

Begin with a table t1 created as shown here:

CREATE TABLE t1 (a INTEGER, b CHAR(10));

To rename the table from t1 to t2:

ALTER TABLE t1 RENAME t2;

To change column a from INTEGER to TINYINT NOT NULL (leaving the name the same), and to change column b from CHAR(10) to CHAR(20) as well as renaming it from b to c:

ALTER TABLE t2 MODIFY a TINYINT NOT NULL, CHANGE b c CHAR(20);

To add a new TIMESTAMP column named d:

ALTER TABLE t2 ADD d TIMESTAMP;

To add an index on column d and a UNIQUE index on column a:

ALTER TABLE t2 ADD INDEX (d), ADD UNIQUE (a);

To remove column c:

ALTER TABLE t2 DROP COLUMN c;

To add a new AUTO_INCREMENT integer column named c:

ALTER TABLE t2 ADD c INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
  ADD PRIMARY KEY (c);

We indexed c (as a PRIMARY KEY) because AUTO_INCREMENT columns must be indexed, and we declare c as NOT NULL because primary key columns cannot be NULL.

For NDB tables, it is also possible to change the storage type used for a table or column. For example, consider an NDB table created as shown here:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT) TABLESPACE ts_1 ENGINE NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.27 sec)

To convert this table to disk-based storage, you can use the following ALTER TABLE statement:

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.99 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t1` (
  `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) /*!50100 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK */
ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

It is not necessary that the tablespace was referenced when the table was originally created; however, the tablespace must be referenced by the ALTER TABLE:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t2 (c1 INT) ts_1 ENGINE NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 STORAGE DISK;
ERROR 1005 (HY000): Can't create table 'c.#sql-1750_3' (errno: 140)
mysql> ALTER TABLE t2 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.42 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0
mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t2` (
  `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL
) /*!50100 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK */
ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

To change the storage type of an individual column, you can use ALTER TABLE ... MODIFY [COLUMN]. For example, suppose you create an NDB Cluster Disk Data table with two columns, using this CREATE TABLE statement:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t3 (c1 INT, c2 INT)
    ->     TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK ENGINE NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.34 sec)

To change column c2 from disk-based to in-memory storage, include a STORAGE MEMORY clause in the column definition used by the ALTER TABLE statement, as shown here:

mysql> ALTER TABLE t3 MODIFY c2 INT STORAGE MEMORY;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.14 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

You can make an in-memory column into a disk-based column by using STORAGE DISK in a similar fashion.

Column c1 uses disk-based storage, since this is the default for the table (determined by the table-level STORAGE DISK clause in the CREATE TABLE statement). However, column c2 uses in-memory storage, as can be seen here in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t3\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t3
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t3` (
  `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `c2` int(11) /*!50120 STORAGE MEMORY */ DEFAULT NULL
) /*!50100 TABLESPACE ts_1 STORAGE DISK */ ENGINE=ndbcluster DEFAULT CHARSET=latin1
1 row in set (0.02 sec)

When you add an AUTO_INCREMENT column, column values are filled in with sequence numbers automatically. For MyISAM tables, you can set the first sequence number by executing SET INSERT_ID=value before ALTER TABLE or by using the AUTO_INCREMENT=value table option.

With MyISAM tables, if you do not change the AUTO_INCREMENT column, the sequence number is not affected. If you drop an AUTO_INCREMENT column and then add another AUTO_INCREMENT column, the numbers are resequenced beginning with 1.

When replication is used, adding an AUTO_INCREMENT column to a table might not produce the same ordering of the rows on the slave and the master. This occurs because the order in which the rows are numbered depends on the specific storage engine used for the table and the order in which the rows were inserted. If it is important to have the same order on the master and slave, the rows must be ordered before assigning an AUTO_INCREMENT number. Assuming that you want to add an AUTO_INCREMENT column to the table t1, the following statements produce a new table t2 identical to t1 but with an AUTO_INCREMENT column:

CREATE TABLE t2 (id INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY)
SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY col1, col2;

This assumes that the table t1 has columns col1 and col2.

This set of statements will also produce a new table t2 identical to t1, with the addition of an AUTO_INCREMENT column:

CREATE TABLE t2 LIKE t1;
ALTER TABLE t2 ADD id INT AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY;
INSERT INTO t2 SELECT * FROM t1 ORDER BY col1, col2;
Important

To guarantee the same ordering on both master and slave, all columns of t1 must be referenced in the ORDER BY clause.

Regardless of the method used to create and populate the copy having the AUTO_INCREMENT column, the final step is to drop the original table and then rename the copy:

DROP TABLE t1;
ALTER TABLE t2 RENAME t1;

13.1.10 ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax

ALTER [UNDO] TABLESPACE tablespace_name
  NDB only:  
    {ADD|DROP} DATAFILE 'file_name'
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] size]
    [WAIT]
  InnoDB and NDB:
    [RENAME TO tablespace_name] 
  InnoDB only:
    [SET {ACTIVE|INACTIVE}]
    [ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}]
  InnoDB and NDB:
    [ENGINE [=] engine_name]

This statement is used with NDB and InnoDB tablespaces. It can be used to add a new data file to, or to drop a data file from an NDB tablespace. It can also be used to rename an NDB Cluster Disk Data tablespace, rename an InnoDB general tablespace, encrypt an InnoDB general tablespace, or mark an InnoDB undo tablespace as active or inactive.

The UNDO keyword, introduced in MySQL 8.0.14, is used with the SET {ACTIVE|INACTIVE} clause to mark an InnoDB undo tablespace as active or inactive. For more information, see Section 15.6.3.4, “Undo Tablespaces”.

The ADD DATAFILE variant enables you to specify an initial size for an NDB Disk Data tablespace using an INITIAL_SIZE clause, where size is measured in bytes; the default value is 134217728 (128 MB). You may optionally follow size with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (megabytes) or G (gigabytes).

On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB). (Bug #29186)

INITIAL_SIZE is rounded, explicitly, as for CREATE TABLESPACE.

Once a data file has been created, its size cannot be changed; however, you can add more data files to an NDB tablespace using additional ALTER TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE statements.

When ALTER TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE is used with ENGINE = NDB, a data file is created on each Cluster data node, but only one row is generated in the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. See the description of this table, as well as Section 22.5.13.1, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Objects”, for more information. ADD DATAFILE is not supported with InnoDB tablespaces.

Using DROP DATAFILE with ALTER TABLESPACE drops the data file 'file_name' from an NDB tablespace. You cannot drop a data file from a tablespace which is in use by any table; in other words, the data file must be empty (no extents used). See Section 22.5.13.1, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Objects”. In addition, any data file to be dropped must previously have been added to the tablespace with CREATE TABLESPACE or ALTER TABLESPACE. DROP DATAFILE is not supported with InnoDB tablespaces.

WAIT is parsed but otherwise ignored. It is intended for future expansion.

The ENGINE clause, which specifies the storage engine used by the tablespace, is deprecated and will be removed in a future release. The tablespace storage engine is known by the data dictionary, making the ENGINE clause obsolete. If the storage engine is specified, it must match the tablespace storage engine defined in the data dictionary. The only values for engine_name compatible with NDB tablespaces are NDB and NDBCLUSTER.

RENAME TO operations are implicitly performed in autocommit mode, regardless of the autocommit setting.

A RENAME TO operation cannot be performed while LOCK TABLES or FLUSH TABLES WITH READ LOCK is in effect for tables that reside in the tablespace.

Exclusive metadata locks are taken on tables that reside in a general tablespace while the tablespace is renamed, which prevents concurrent DDL. Concurrent DML is supported.

The CREATE TABLESPACE privilege is required to rename an InnoDB general tablespace.

The ENCRYPTION clause enables or disables page-level data encryption for an InnoDB general tablespace or the mysql system tablespace. Encryption support for general tablespaces was introduced in MySQL 8.0.13. Encryption support for the mysql system tablespace was introduced in MySQL 8.0.16.

A keyring plugin must be installed and configured before encryption can be enabled.

As of MySQL 8.0.16, if the table_encryption_privilege_check variable is enabled, the TABLE_ENCRYPTION_ADMIN privilege is required to alter a general tablespace with an ENCRYPTION clause setting that differs from the default_table_encryption setting.

Enabling encryption for a general tablespace fails if any table in the tablespace belongs to a schema defined with DEFAULT ENCRYPTION='N'. Similarly, disabling encryption fails if any table in the general tablespace belongs to a schema defined with DEFAULT ENCRYPTION='Y'. The DEFAULT ENCRYPTION schema option was introduced in MySQL 8.0.16.

If an ALTER TABLESPACE statement executed on a general tablespace does not include an ENCRYPTION clause, the tablespace retains its current encryption status, regardless of the default_table_encryption setting.

When a general tablespace or the mysql system tablespace is encrypted, all tables residing in the tablespace are encrypted. Likewise, a table created in an encrypted tablespace is encrypted.

The INPLACE algorithm is used when altering the ENCRYPTION attribute of a general tablespace or the mysql system tablespace. The INPLACE algorithm permits concurrent DML on tables that reside in the tablespace. Concurrent DDL is blocked.

For more information, see Section 15.6.3.9, “InnoDB Data-at-Rest Encryption”.

13.1.11 ALTER VIEW Syntax

ALTER
    [ALGORITHM = {UNDEFINED | MERGE | TEMPTABLE}]
    [DEFINER = user]
    [SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }]
    VIEW view_name [(column_list)]
    AS select_statement
    [WITH [CASCADED | LOCAL] CHECK OPTION]

This statement changes the definition of a view, which must exist. The syntax is similar to that for CREATE VIEW see Section 13.1.23, “CREATE VIEW Syntax”). This statement requires the CREATE VIEW and DROP privileges for the view, and some privilege for each column referred to in the SELECT statement. ALTER VIEW is permitted only to the definer or users with the SET_USER_ID or SUPER privilege.

13.1.12 CREATE DATABASE Syntax

CREATE {DATABASE | SCHEMA} [IF NOT EXISTS] db_name
    [create_specification] ...

create_specification:
    [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | DEFAULT ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}

CREATE DATABASE creates a database with the given name. To use this statement, you need the CREATE privilege for the database. CREATE SCHEMA is a synonym for CREATE DATABASE.

An error occurs if the database exists and you did not specify IF NOT EXISTS.

CREATE DATABASE is not permitted within a session that has an active LOCK TABLES statement.

create_specification options specify database characteristics. Database characteristics are stored in the data dictionary.

A database in MySQL is implemented as a directory containing files that correspond to tables in the database. Because there are no tables in a database when it is initially created, the CREATE DATABASE statement creates only a directory under the MySQL data directory. Rules for permissible database names are given in Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”. If a database name contains special characters, the name for the database directory contains encoded versions of those characters as described in Section 9.2.4, “Mapping of Identifiers to File Names”.

Creating a database directory by manually creating a directory under the data directory (for example, with mkdir) is unsupported in MySQL 8.0.

MySQL has no limit on the number of databases. The underlying file system may have a limit on the number of directories.

You can also use the mysqladmin program to create databases. See Section 4.5.2, “mysqladmin — Client for Administering a MySQL Server”.

13.1.13 CREATE EVENT Syntax

CREATE
    [DEFINER = user]
    EVENT
    [IF NOT EXISTS]
    event_name
    ON SCHEDULE schedule
    [ON COMPLETION [NOT] PRESERVE]
    [ENABLE | DISABLE | DISABLE ON SLAVE]
    [COMMENT 'string']
    DO event_body;

schedule:
    AT timestamp [+ INTERVAL interval] ...
  | EVERY interval
    [STARTS timestamp [+ INTERVAL interval] ...]
    [ENDS timestamp [+ INTERVAL interval] ...]

interval:
    quantity {YEAR | QUARTER | MONTH | DAY | HOUR | MINUTE |
              WEEK | SECOND | YEAR_MONTH | DAY_HOUR | DAY_MINUTE |
              DAY_SECOND | HOUR_MINUTE | HOUR_SECOND | MINUTE_SECOND}

This statement creates and schedules a new event. The event will not run unless the Event Scheduler is enabled. For information about checking Event Scheduler status and enabling it if necessary, see Section 24.4.2, “Event Scheduler Configuration”.

CREATE EVENT requires the EVENT privilege for the schema in which the event is to be created. If the DEFINER clause is present, the privileges required depend on the user value, as discussed in Section 24.6, “Stored Object Access Control”.

The minimum requirements for a valid CREATE EVENT statement are as follows:

  • The keywords CREATE EVENT plus an event name, which uniquely identifies the event in a database schema.

  • An ON SCHEDULE clause, which determines when and how often the event executes.

  • A DO clause, which contains the SQL statement to be executed by an event.

This is an example of a minimal CREATE EVENT statement:

CREATE EVENT myevent
    ON SCHEDULE AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 HOUR
    DO
      UPDATE myschema.mytable SET mycol = mycol + 1;

The previous statement creates an event named myevent. This event executes once—one hour following its creation—by running an SQL statement that increments the value of the myschema.mytable table's mycol column by 1.

The event_name must be a valid MySQL identifier with a maximum length of 64 characters. Event names are not case-sensitive, so you cannot have two events named myevent and MyEvent in the same schema. In general, the rules governing event names are the same as those for names of stored routines. See Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

An event is associated with a schema. If no schema is indicated as part of event_name, the default (current) schema is assumed. To create an event in a specific schema, qualify the event name with a schema using schema_name.event_name syntax.

The DEFINER clause specifies the MySQL account to be used when checking access privileges at event execution time. If the DEFINER clause is present, the user value should be a MySQL account specified as 'user_name'@'host_name', CURRENT_USER, or CURRENT_USER(). The permitted user values depend on the privileges you hold, as discussed in Section 24.6, “Stored Object Access Control”. Also see that section for additional information about event security.

If the DEFINER clause is omitted, the default definer is the user who executes the CREATE EVENT statement. This is the same as specifying DEFINER = CURRENT_USER explicitly.

Within an event body, the CURRENT_USER function returns the account used to check privileges at event execution time, which is the DEFINER user. For information about user auditing within events, see Section 6.2.22, “SQL-Based Account Activity Auditing”.

IF NOT EXISTS has the same meaning for CREATE EVENT as for CREATE TABLE: If an event named event_name already exists in the same schema, no action is taken, and no error results. (However, a warning is generated in such cases.)

The ON SCHEDULE clause determines when, how often, and for how long the event_body defined for the event repeats. This clause takes one of two forms:

  • AT timestamp is used for a one-time event. It specifies that the event executes one time only at the date and time given by timestamp, which must include both the date and time, or must be an expression that resolves to a datetime value. You may use a value of either the DATETIME or TIMESTAMP type for this purpose. If the date is in the past, a warning occurs, as shown here:

    mysql> SELECT NOW();
    +---------------------+
    | NOW()               |
    +---------------------+
    | 2006-02-10 23:59:01 |
    +---------------------+
    1 row in set (0.04 sec)
    
    mysql> CREATE EVENT e_totals
        ->     ON SCHEDULE AT '2006-02-10 23:59:00'
        ->     DO INSERT INTO test.totals VALUES (NOW());
    Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)
    
    mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
    *************************** 1. row ***************************
      Level: Note
       Code: 1588
    Message: Event execution time is in the past and ON COMPLETION NOT
             PRESERVE is set. The event was dropped immediately after
             creation.
    

    CREATE EVENT statements which are themselves invalid—for whatever reason—fail with an error.

    You may use CURRENT_TIMESTAMP to specify the current date and time. In such a case, the event acts as soon as it is created.

    To create an event which occurs at some point in the future relative to the current date and time—such as that expressed by the phrase three weeks from now—you can use the optional clause + INTERVAL interval. The interval portion consists of two parts, a quantity and a unit of time, and follows the syntax rules described in Temporal Intervals, except that you cannot use any units keywords that involving microseconds when defining an event. With some interval types, complex time units may be used. For example, two minutes and ten seconds can be expressed as + INTERVAL '2:10' MINUTE_SECOND.

    You can also combine intervals. For example, AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 3 WEEK + INTERVAL 2 DAY is equivalent to three weeks and two days from now. Each portion of such a clause must begin with + INTERVAL.

  • To repeat actions at a regular interval, use an EVERY clause. The EVERY keyword is followed by an interval as described in the previous discussion of the AT keyword. (+ INTERVAL is not used with EVERY.) For example, EVERY 6 WEEK means every six weeks.

    Although + INTERVAL clauses are not permitted in an EVERY clause, you can use the same complex time units permitted in a + INTERVAL.

    An EVERY clause may contain an optional STARTS clause. STARTS is followed by a timestamp value that indicates when the action should begin repeating, and may also use + INTERVAL interval to specify an amount of time from now. For example, EVERY 3 MONTH STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 WEEK means every three months, beginning one week from now. Similarly, you can express every two weeks, beginning six hours and fifteen minutes from now as EVERY 2 WEEK STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL '6:15' HOUR_MINUTE. Not specifying STARTS is the same as using STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP—that is, the action specified for the event begins repeating immediately upon creation of the event.

    An EVERY clause may contain an optional ENDS clause. The ENDS keyword is followed by a timestamp value that tells MySQL when the event should stop repeating. You may also use + INTERVAL interval with ENDS; for instance, EVERY 12 HOUR STARTS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 30 MINUTE ENDS CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 4 WEEK is equivalent to every twelve hours, beginning thirty minutes from now, and ending four weeks from now. Not using ENDS means that the event continues executing indefinitely.

    ENDS supports the same syntax for complex time units as STARTS does.

    You may use STARTS, ENDS, both, or neither in an EVERY clause.

    If a repeating event does not terminate within its scheduling interval, the result may be multiple instances of the event executing simultaneously. If this is undesirable, you should institute a mechanism to prevent simultaneous instances. For example, you could use the GET_LOCK() function, or row or table locking.

The ON SCHEDULE clause may use expressions involving built-in MySQL functions and user variables to obtain any of the timestamp or interval values which it contains. You may not use stored functions or user-defined functions in such expressions, nor may you use any table references; however, you may use SELECT FROM DUAL. This is true for both CREATE EVENT and ALTER EVENT statements. References to stored functions, user-defined functions, and tables in such cases are specifically not permitted, and fail with an error (see Bug #22830).

Times in the ON SCHEDULE clause are interpreted using the current session time_zone value. This becomes the event time zone; that is, the time zone that is used for event scheduling and is in effect within the event as it executes. These times are converted to UTC and stored along with the event time zone internally. This enables event execution to proceed as defined regardless of any subsequent changes to the server time zone or daylight saving time effects. For additional information about representation of event times, see Section 24.4.4, “Event Metadata”. See also Section 13.7.7.18, “SHOW EVENTS Syntax”, and Section 25.10, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA EVENTS Table”.

Normally, once an event has expired, it is immediately dropped. You can override this behavior by specifying ON COMPLETION PRESERVE. Using ON COMPLETION NOT PRESERVE merely makes the default nonpersistent behavior explicit.

You can create an event but prevent it from being active using the DISABLE keyword. Alternatively, you can use ENABLE to make explicit the default status, which is active. This is most useful in conjunction with ALTER EVENT (see Section 13.1.3, “ALTER EVENT Syntax”).

A third value may also appear in place of ENABLE or DISABLE; DISABLE ON SLAVE is set for the status of an event on a replication slave to indicate that the event was created on the master and replicated to the slave, but is not executed on the slave. See Section 17.5.1.16, “Replication of Invoked Features”.

You may supply a comment for an event using a COMMENT clause. comment may be any string of up to 64 characters that you wish to use for describing the event. The comment text, being a string literal, must be surrounded by quotation marks.

The DO clause specifies an action carried by the event, and consists of an SQL statement. Nearly any valid MySQL statement that can be used in a stored routine can also be used as the action statement for a scheduled event. (See Section 24.8, “Restrictions on Stored Programs”.) For example, the following event e_hourly deletes all rows from the sessions table once per hour, where this table is part of the site_activity schema:

CREATE EVENT e_hourly
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 1 HOUR
    COMMENT 'Clears out sessions table each hour.'
    DO
      DELETE FROM site_activity.sessions;

MySQL stores the sql_mode system variable setting in effect when an event is created or altered, and always executes the event with this setting in force, regardless of the current server SQL mode when the event begins executing.

A CREATE EVENT statement that contains an ALTER EVENT statement in its DO clause appears to succeed; however, when the server attempts to execute the resulting scheduled event, the execution fails with an error.

Note

Statements such as SELECT or SHOW that merely return a result set have no effect when used in an event; the output from these is not sent to the MySQL Monitor, nor is it stored anywhere. However, you can use statements such as SELECT ... INTO and INSERT INTO ... SELECT that store a result. (See the next example in this section for an instance of the latter.)

The schema to which an event belongs is the default schema for table references in the DO clause. Any references to tables in other schemas must be qualified with the proper schema name.

As with stored routines, you can use compound-statement syntax in the DO clause by using the BEGIN and END keywords, as shown here:

delimiter |

CREATE EVENT e_daily
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 1 DAY
    COMMENT 'Saves total number of sessions then clears the table each day'
    DO
      BEGIN
        INSERT INTO site_activity.totals (time, total)
          SELECT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP, COUNT(*)
            FROM site_activity.sessions;
        DELETE FROM site_activity.sessions;
      END |

delimiter ;

This example uses the delimiter command to change the statement delimiter. See Section 24.1, “Defining Stored Programs”.

More complex compound statements, such as those used in stored routines, are possible in an event. This example uses local variables, an error handler, and a flow control construct:

delimiter |

CREATE EVENT e
    ON SCHEDULE
      EVERY 5 SECOND
    DO
      BEGIN
        DECLARE v INTEGER;
        DECLARE CONTINUE HANDLER FOR SQLEXCEPTION BEGIN END;

        SET v = 0;

        WHILE v < 5 DO
          INSERT INTO t1 VALUES (0);
          UPDATE t2 SET s1 = s1 + 1;
          SET v = v + 1;
        END WHILE;
    END |

delimiter ;

There is no way to pass parameters directly to or from events; however, it is possible to invoke a stored routine with parameters within an event:

CREATE EVENT e_call_myproc
    ON SCHEDULE
      AT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP + INTERVAL 1 DAY
    DO CALL myproc(5, 27);

If an event's definer has privileges sufficient to set global system variables (see Section 5.1.9.1, “System Variable Privileges”), the event can read and write global variables. As granting such privileges entails a potential for abuse, extreme care must be taken in doing so.

Generally, any statements that are valid in stored routines may be used for action statements executed by events. For more information about statements permissible within stored routines, see Section 24.2.1, “Stored Routine Syntax”. You can create an event as part of a stored routine, but an event cannot be created by another event.

13.1.14 CREATE FUNCTION Syntax

The CREATE FUNCTION statement is used to create stored functions and user-defined functions (UDFs):

13.1.15 CREATE INDEX Syntax

CREATE [UNIQUE | FULLTEXT | SPATIAL] INDEX index_name
    [index_type]
    ON tbl_name (key_part,...)
    [index_option]
    [algorithm_option | lock_option] ...

key_part: {col_name [(length)] | (expr)} [ASC | DESC]

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'
  | {VISIBLE | INVISIBLE}

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}

algorithm_option:
    ALGORITHM [=] {DEFAULT | INPLACE | COPY}

lock_option:
    LOCK [=] {DEFAULT | NONE | SHARED | EXCLUSIVE}

Normally, you create all indexes on a table at the time the table itself is created with CREATE TABLE. See Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”. This guideline is especially important for InnoDB tables, where the primary key determines the physical layout of rows in the data file. CREATE INDEX enables you to add indexes to existing tables.

CREATE INDEX is mapped to an ALTER TABLE statement to create indexes. See Section 13.1.9, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”. CREATE INDEX cannot be used to create a PRIMARY KEY; use ALTER TABLE instead. For more information about indexes, see Section 8.3.1, “How MySQL Uses Indexes”.

InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual columns. For more information, see Section 13.1.20.10, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

When the innodb_stats_persistent setting is enabled, run the ANALYZE TABLE statement for an InnoDB table after creating an index on that table.

Beginning with MySQL 8.0.17, the expr for a key_part specification can take the form (CAST json_path AS type ARRAY) to create a multi-valued index on a JSON column. See Multi-Valued Indexes.

An index specification of the form (key_part1, key_part2, ...) creates an index with multiple key parts. Index key values are formed by concatenating the values of the given key parts. For example (col1, col2, col3) specifies a multiple-column index with index keys consisting of values from col1, col2, and col3.

A key_part specification can end with ASC or DESC to specify whether index values are stored in ascending or descending order. The default is ascending if no order specifier is given. ASC and DESC are not permitted for HASH indexes. ASC and DESC are also not supported for multi-valued indexes. As of MySQL 8.0.12, ASC and DESC are not permitted for SPATIAL indexes.

The following sections describe different aspects of the CREATE INDEX statement:

Column Prefix Key Parts

For string columns, indexes can be created that use only the leading part of column values, using col_name(length) syntax to specify an index prefix length:

If a specified index prefix exceeds the maximum column data type size, CREATE INDEX handles the index as follows:

  • For a nonunique index, either an error occurs (if strict SQL mode is enabled), or the index length is reduced to lie within the maximum column data type size and a warning is produced (if strict SQL mode is not enabled).

  • For a unique index, an error occurs regardless of SQL mode because reducing the index length might enable insertion of nonunique entries that do not meet the specified uniqueness requirement.

The statement shown here creates an index using the first 10 characters of the name column (assuming that name has a nonbinary string type):

CREATE INDEX part_of_name ON customer (name(10));

If names in the column usually differ in the first 10 characters, lookups performed using this index should not be much slower than using an index created from the entire name column. Also, using column prefixes for indexes can make the index file much smaller, which could save a lot of disk space and might also speed up INSERT operations.

Functional Key Parts

A normal index indexes column values or prefixes of column values. For example, in the following table, the index entry for a given t1 row includes the full col1 value and a prefix of the col2 value consisting of its first 10 characters:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
  col1 VARCHAR(10),
  col2 VARCHAR(20),
  INDEX (col1, col2(10))
);

MySQL 8.0.13 and higher supports functional key parts that index expression values rather than column or column prefix values. Use of functional key parts enables indexing of values not stored directly in the table. Examples:

CREATE TABLE t1 (col1 INT, col2 INT, INDEX func_index ((ABS(col1))));
CREATE INDEX idx1 ON t1 ((col1 + col2));
CREATE INDEX idx2 ON t1 ((col1 + col2), (col1 - col2), col1);
ALTER TABLE t1 ADD INDEX ((col1 * 40) DESC);

An index with multiple key parts can mix nonfunctional and functional key parts.

ASC and DESC are supported for functional key parts.

Functional key parts must adhere to the following rules. An error occurs if a key part definition contains disallowed constructs.

  • In index definitions, enclose expressions within parentheses to distinguish them from columns or column prefixes. For example, this is permitted; the expressions are enclosed within parentheses:

    INDEX ((col1 + col2), (col3 - col4))
    

    This produces an error; the expressions are not enclosed within parentheses:

    INDEX (col1 + col2, col3 - col4)
    
  • A functional key part cannot consist solely of a column name. For example, this is not permitted:

    INDEX ((col1), (col2))
    

    Instead, write the key parts as nonfunctional key parts, without parentheses:

    INDEX (col1, col2)
    
  • A functional key part expression cannot refer to column prefixes. For a workaround, see the discussion of SUBSTRING() and CAST() later in this section.

  • Functional key parts are not permitted in foreign key specifications.

For CREATE TABLE ... LIKE, the destination table preserves functional key parts from the original table.

Functional indexes are implemented as hidden virtual generated columns, which has these implications:

UNIQUE is supported for indexes that include functional key parts. However, primary keys cannot include functional key parts. A primary key requires the generated column to be stored, but functional key parts are implemented as virtual generated columns, not stored generated columns.

SPATIAL and FULLTEXT indexes cannot have functional key parts.

If a table contains no primary key, InnoDB automatically promotes the first UNIQUE NOT NULL index to the primary key. This is not supported for UNIQUE NOT NULL indexes that have functional key parts.

Nonfunctional indexes raise a warning if there are duplicate indexes. Indexes that contain functional key parts do not have this feature.

To remove a column that is referenced by a functional key part, the index must be removed first. Otherwise, an error occurs.

Although nonfunctional key parts support a prefix length specification, this is not possible for functional key parts. The solution is to use SUBSTRING() (or CAST(), as described later in this section). For a functional key part containing the SUBSTRING() function to be used in a query, the WHERE clause must contain SUBSTRING() with the same arguments. In the following example, only the second SELECT is able to use the index because that is the only query in which the arguments to SUBSTRING() match the index specification:

CREATE TABLE tbl (
  col1 LONGTEXT,
  INDEX idx1 ((SUBSTRING(col1, 1, 10)))
);
SELECT * FROM tbl WHERE SUBSTRING(col1, 1, 9) = '123456789';
SELECT * FROM tbl WHERE SUBSTRING(col1, 1, 10) = '1234567890';

Functional key parts enable indexing of values that cannot be indexed otherwise, such as JSON values. However, this must be done correctly to achieve the desired effect. For example, this syntax does not work:

CREATE TABLE employees (
  data JSON,
  INDEX ((data->>'$.name'))
);

The syntax fails because:

  • The ->> operator translates into JSON_UNQUOTE(JSON_EXTRACT(...)).

  • JSON_UNQUOTE() returns a value with a data type of LONGTEXT, and the hidden generated column thus is assigned the same data type.

  • MySQL cannot index LONGTEXT columns specified without a prefix length on the key part, and prefix lengths are not permitted in functional key parts.

To index the JSON column, you could try using the CAST() function as follows:

CREATE TABLE employees (
  data JSON,
  INDEX ((CAST(data->>'$.name' AS CHAR(30))))
);

The hidden generated column is assigned the VARCHAR(30) data type, which can be indexed. But this approach produces a new issue when trying to use the index:

  • CAST() returns a string with the collation utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci (the server default collation).

  • JSON_UNQUOTE() returns a string with the collation utf8mb4_bin (hard coded).

As a result, there is a collation mismatch between the indexed expression in the preceding table definition and the WHERE clause expression in the following query:

SELECT * FROM employees WHERE data->>'$.name' = 'James';

The index is not used because the expressions in the query and the index differ. To support this kind of scenario for functional key parts, the optimizer automatically strips CAST() when looking for an index to use, but only if the collation of the indexed expression matches that of the query expression. For an index with a functional key part to be used, either of the following two solutions work (although they differ somewhat in effect):

  • Solution 1. Assign the indexed expression the same collation as JSON_UNQUOTE():

    CREATE TABLE employees (
      data JSON,
      INDEX idx ((CAST(data->>"$.name" AS CHAR(30)) COLLATE utf8mb4_bin))
    );
    INSERT INTO employees VALUES
      ('{ "name": "james", "salary": 9000 }'),
      ('{ "name": "James", "salary": 10000 }'),
      ('{ "name": "Mary", "salary": 12000 }'),
      ('{ "name": "Peter", "salary": 8000 }');
    SELECT * FROM employees WHERE data->>'$.name' = 'James';
    

    The ->> operator is the same as JSON_UNQUOTE(JSON_EXTRACT(...)), and JSON_UNQUOTE() returns a string with collation utf8mb4_bin. The comparison is thus case sensitive, and only one row matches:

    +------------------------------------+
    | data                               |
    +------------------------------------+
    | {"name": "James", "salary": 10000} |
    +------------------------------------+
    
  • Solution 2. Specify the full expression in the query:

    CREATE TABLE employees (
      data JSON,
      INDEX idx ((CAST(data->>"$.name" AS CHAR(30))))
    );
    INSERT INTO employees VALUES
      ('{ "name": "james", "salary": 9000 }'),
      ('{ "name": "James", "salary": 10000 }'),
      ('{ "name": "Mary", "salary": 12000 }'),
      ('{ "name": "Peter", "salary": 8000 }');
    SELECT * FROM employees WHERE CAST(data->>'$.name' AS CHAR(30)) = 'James';
    

    CAST() returns a string with collation utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci, so the comparison case insensitive and two rows match:

    +------------------------------------+
    | data                               |
    +------------------------------------+
    | {"name": "james", "salary": 9000}  |
    | {"name": "James", "salary": 10000} |
    +------------------------------------+
    

Be aware that although the optimizer supports automatically stripping CAST() with indexed generated columns, the following approach does not work because it produces a different result with and without an index (Bug#27337092):

mysql> CREATE TABLE employees (
         data JSON,
         generated_col VARCHAR(30) AS (CAST(data->>'$.name' AS CHAR(30)))
       );
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.03 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO employees (data)
       VALUES ('{"name": "james"}'), ('{"name": "James"}');
Query OK, 2 rows affected, 1 warning (0.01 sec)
Records: 2  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 1

mysql> SELECT * FROM employees WHERE data->>'$.name' = 'James';
+-------------------+---------------+
| data              | generated_col |
+-------------------+---------------+
| {"name": "James"} | James         |
+-------------------+---------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE employees ADD INDEX idx (generated_col);
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.03 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 1

mysql> SELECT * FROM employees WHERE data->>'$.name' = 'James';
+-------------------+---------------+
| data              | generated_col |
+-------------------+---------------+
| {"name": "james"} | james         |
| {"name": "James"} | James         |
+-------------------+---------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

Unique Indexes

A UNIQUE index creates a constraint such that all values in the index must be distinct. An error occurs if you try to add a new row with a key value that matches an existing row. If you specify a prefix value for a column in a UNIQUE index, the column values must be unique within the prefix length. A UNIQUE index permits multiple NULL values for columns that can contain NULL.

If a table has a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE NOT NULL index that consists of a single column that has an integer type, you can use _rowid to refer to the indexed column in SELECT statements, as follows:

  • _rowid refers to the PRIMARY KEY column if there is a PRIMARY KEY consisting of a single integer column. If there is a PRIMARY KEY but it does not consist of a single integer column, _rowid cannot be used.

  • Otherwise, _rowid refers to the column in the first UNIQUE NOT NULL index if that index consists of a single integer column. If the first UNIQUE NOT NULL index does not consist of a single integer column, _rowid cannot be used.

Full-Text Indexes

FULLTEXT indexes are supported only for InnoDB and MyISAM tables and can include only CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns. Indexing always happens over the entire column; column prefix indexing is not supported and any prefix length is ignored if specified. See Section 12.9, “Full-Text Search Functions”, for details of operation.

Multi-Valued Indexes

As of MySQL 8.0.17, InnoDB supports multi-valued indexes. A multi-valued index is a secondary index defined on a column that stores an array of values. A normal index has one index record for each data record (1:1). A multi-valued index can have multiple index records for a single data record (N:1). Multi-valued indexes are intended for indexing JSON arrays. For example, a multi-valued index defined on the array of zip codes in the following JSON document creates an index record for each zip code, with each index record referencing the same data record.

{
    "user":"Bob",
    "user_id":31,
    "zipcode":[94477,94536]
}
Creating multi-valued Indexes

You can create a multi-valued index in a CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, or CREATE INDEX statement. This requires using CAST(... AS ... ARRAY) in the index definition, which casts same-typed scalar values in a JSON array to an SQL data type array. A virtual column is then generated transparently with the values in the SQL data type array; finally, a functional index (also referred to as a virtual index) is created on the virtual column. It is the functional index defined on the virtual column of values from the SQL data type array that forms the multi-valued index.

The examples in the following list show the three different ways in which a multi-valued index zips can be created on an array $.zipcode on a JSON column custinfo in a table named customers. In each case, the JSON array is cast to an SQL data type array of UNSIGNED integer values.

  • CREATE TABLE only:

    CREATE TABLE customers (
        id BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
        modified DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
        custinfo JSON,
        INDEX zips( (CAST(custinfo->'$.zip' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY)) )
        );
    
  • CREATE TABLE plus ALTER TABLE:

    CREATE TABLE customers (
        id BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
        modified DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
        custinfo JSON
        );
    
    ALTER TABLE customers 
        ADD INDEX zips( (CAST(custinfo->'$.zip' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY)) );
    

  • CREATE TABLE plus CREATE INDEX:

    CREATE TABLE customers (
        id BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
        modified DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
        custinfo JSON
        );
    
    
    CREATE INDEX zips ON customers ( (CAST(custinfo->'$.zip' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY)) );
    

A multi-valued index can also be defined as part of a composite index. This example shows a composite index that includes two single-valued parts (for the id and modified columns), and one multi-valued part (for the custinfo column):

CREATE TABLE customers (
    id BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    modified DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    custinfo JSON
    );

ALTER TABLE customers 
    ADD INDEX comp(
        id, modified, (CAST(custinfo->'$.zipcode' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY))
    );

Only one multi-valued key part can be used in a composite index. The multi-valued key part may be used in any order relative to the other parts of the key. In other words, the ALTER TABLE statement just shown could have used comp(id, (CAST(custinfo->'$.zipcode' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY), modified)) (or any other ordering) and still have been valid.

Using multi-valued Indexes

The optimizer uses a multi-valued index to fetch records when the following functions are specified in a WHERE clause:

We can demonstrate this by creating and populating the customers table using the following CREATE TABLE and INSERT statements:

mysql> CREATE TABLE customers (
    ->     id BIGINT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    ->     modified DATETIME DEFAULT CURRENT_TIMESTAMP ON UPDATE CURRENT_TIMESTAMP,
    ->     custinfo JSON
    ->     );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.51 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO customers VALUES 
    ->     (NULL, NOW(), '{"user":"Jack","user_id":37,"zipcode":[94582,94536]}'),
    ->     (NULL, NOW(), '{"user":"Jill","user_id":22,"zipcode":[94568,94507,94582]}'),
    ->     (NULL, NOW(), '{"user":"Bob","user_id":31,"zipcode":[94477,94536]}'),
    ->     (NULL, NOW(), '{"user":"Mary","user_id":72,"zipcode":[94536]}'),
    ->     (NULL, NOW(), '{"user":"Ted","user_id":56,"zipcode":[94507,94582]}');
Query OK, 5 rows affected (0.07 sec)
Records: 5  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

First we execute three queries on the customers table, one each using MEMBER OF(), JSON_CONTAINS(), and JSON_OVERLAPS(), with the result from each query shown here:

mysql> SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE 94507 MEMBER OF(custinfo->'$.zipcode');
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id | modified            | custinfo                                                          |
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
|  2 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Jill", "user_id": 22, "zipcode": [94568, 94507, 94582]} |
|  3 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Bob", "user_id": 31, "zipcode": [94477, 94507]}         |
|  5 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Ted", "user_id": 56, "zipcode": [94507, 94582]}         |
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE JSON_CONTAINS(custinfo->'$.zipcode', CAST('[94507,94582]' AS JSON));
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id | modified            | custinfo                                                          |
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
|  2 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Jill", "user_id": 22, "zipcode": [94568, 94507, 94582]} |
|  5 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Ted", "user_id": 56, "zipcode": [94507, 94582]}         |
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE JSON_OVERLAPS(custinfo->'$.zipcode', CAST('[94507,94582]' AS JSON));
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
| id | modified            | custinfo                                                          |
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
|  1 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Jack", "user_id": 37, "zipcode": [94582, 94536]}        |
|  2 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Jill", "user_id": 22, "zipcode": [94568, 94507, 94582]} |
|  3 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Bob", "user_id": 31, "zipcode": [94477, 94507]}         |
|  5 | 2019-06-29 22:23:12 | {"user": "Ted", "user_id": 56, "zipcode": [94507, 94582]}         |
+----+---------------------+-------------------------------------------------------------------+
4 rows in set (0.00 sec)

Next, we run EXPLAIN on each of the previous three queries:

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE 94507 MEMBER OF(custinfo->'$.zipcode');
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table     | partitions | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | customers | NULL       | ALL  | NULL          | NULL | NULL    | NULL |    5 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE JSON_CONTAINS(custinfo->'$.zipcode', CAST('[94507,94582]' AS JSON));
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table     | partitions | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | customers | NULL       | ALL  | NULL          | NULL | NULL    | NULL |    5 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE JSON_OVERLAPS(custinfo->'$.zipcode', CAST('[94507,94582]' AS JSON));
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table     | partitions | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | customers | NULL       | ALL  | NULL          | NULL | NULL    | NULL |    5 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.01 sec)

None of the three queries just shown are able to use any keys. To solve this problem, we can add a multi-valued index on the zipcode array in the JSON column (custinfo), like this:

mysql> ALTER TABLE customers 
    ->     ADD INDEX zips( (CAST(custinfo->'$.zipcode' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY)) );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.47 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

When we run the previous EXPLAIN statements again, we can now observe that the queries can (and do) use the index zips that was just created:

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE 94507 MEMBER OF(custinfo->'$.zipcode');
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+-------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table     | partitions | type | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref   | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+-------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | customers | NULL       | ref  | zips          | zips | 9       | const |    1 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+------+---------------+------+---------+-------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE JSON_OVERLAPS(custinfo->'$.zipcode', CAST('[94507,94582]' AS JSON));
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+-------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table     | partitions | type  | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+-------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | customers | NULL       | range | zips          | zips | 9       | NULL |    6 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+-------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.01 sec)

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT * FROM customers 
    ->     WHERE JSON_CONTAINS(custinfo->'$.zipcode', CAST('[94507,94582]' AS JSON));
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+-------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table     | partitions | type  | possible_keys | key  | key_len | ref  | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+-------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | SIMPLE      | customers | NULL       | range | zips          | zips | 9       | NULL |    6 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-----------+------------+-------+---------------+------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

A multi-valued index can be defined as a unique key. If defined as a unique key, attempting to insert a value already present in the multi-valued index returns a duplicate key error. If duplicate values are already present, attempting to add a unique multi-valued index fails, as shown here:

mysql> ALTER TABLE customers DROP INDEX zips;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.55 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> ALTER TABLE customers 
    ->     ADD UNIQUE INDEX zips((CAST(custinfo->'$.zipcode' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY)));
ERROR 1062 (23000): Duplicate entry '[94507, ' for key 'zips'
mysql> ALTER TABLE customers 
    ->     ADD INDEX zips((CAST(custinfo->'$.zipcode' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY)));
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.36 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

Characteristics of Multi-Valued Indexes

Multi-valued indexes have the additional characteristics listed here:

  • DML operations that affect multi-valued indexes are handled in the same way as DML operations that affect a normal index, with the only difference being that there may be more than one insert or update for a single clustered index record.

  • Nullability and multi-valued indexes:

    • If multi-valued key part has an empty array, no entries are added to the index, and the data record is not accessible by an index scan.

    • If multi-valued key part generation returns a NULL value, a single entry containing NULL is added to the multi-valued index. If the key part is defined as NOT NULL, an error is reported.

    • If the typed array column is set to NULL, the storage engine stores single record containing NULL that points to the data record.

    • JSON null values are not permitted in indexed arrays. If any returned value is NULL, it is treated as a JSON null and an Invalid JSON value error is reported.

  • Because multi-valued indexes are virtual indexes on virtual columns, they must adhere to the same rules as secondary indexes on virtual generated columns.

  • Index records are not added for empty arrays.

Limitations and Restrictions on Multi-valued Indexes

Multi-valued indexes are subject to the limitations and restrictions listed here:

  • Only one multi-valued key part is permitted per multi-valued index. However, the CAST(... AS ... ARRAY) expression can refer to multiple arrays within a JSON document, as shown here:

    CAST(data->'$.arr[*][*]' AS UNSIGNED ARRAY)
    

    In this case, all values matching the path expression are stored in the index as a single flat array.

  • An index with a multi-valued key part does not support ordering and therefore cannot be used as a primary key. For the same reason, a multi-valued index cannot be defined using the ASC or DESC keyword.

  • A multi-valued index cannot be a covering index.

  • The number of keys that can be indexed for a single data record is based on the number of keys and total key length permitted by the storage engine. InnoDB limits are 655335 keys and 10000 bytes for the total key length. InnoDB limits are determined by the amount of data can be stored on a single undo log page. A single undo log page should permit indexing up to 1250 integer values, for example.

  • The only type of expression that is permitted in a multi-valued key part is a JSON path. The path need not point to an existing element in a JSON document inserted into the indexed column, but must itself be syntactically valid.

  • Because index records for the same clustered index record are dispersed throughout a multi-valued index, a multi-valued index does not support range scans or index-only scans.

  • Multi-valued indexes are not permitted in foreign key specifications.

  • Index prefixes cannot be defined for multi-valued indexes.

  • Multi-valued indexes cannot be defined on data cast as BINARY (see the description of the CAST() function).

  • Online creation of a multi-value index is not supported, which means the operation uses ALGORITHM=COPY. See Performance and Space Requirements.

  • Character sets and collations other than the following two combinations of character set and collation are not supported for multi-valued indexes:

    1. The binary character set with the default binary collation

    2. The utf8mb4 character set with the default utf8mb4_0900_as_cs collation (see following)

    It is possible for different binary strings to be mapped to the same character or characters when using the utf8mb4_0900_as_cs collation. Multi-value indexes remove duplicate values before they are stored, so any duplicate values are lost, and selecting one of these does not return any results. For example:

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
        ->     f1 JSON, 
        ->     UNIQUE KEY i1( (CAST(f1->"$[*]" AS CHAR(10) ARRAY)) )
        -> );
    mysql> INSERT INTO t1(f1)
        ->  VALUES (JSON_ARRAY(_utf8mb4 0xE284AB, _utf8mb4 0xc385));
    mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE _utf8mb4 0xc385 MEMBER OF (f1->"$[*]");
    +------------+
    | f1         |
    +------------+
    | ["Å", "Å"] |
    +------------+
    mysql> SELECT * FROM t1 WHERE _utf8mb4 0xE284AB MEMBER OF (f1->"$[*]");
    Empty set (0,00 sec)
    

    You can (and should) anticipate such issues in advance by sanitizing data prior to inserting it.

  • As with other indexes on columns of InnoDB tables, a multi-valued index cannot be created with USING HASH; attempting to do so results in a warning: This storage engine does not support the HASH index algorithm, storage engine default was used instead. (USING BTREE is supported as usual.)

Spatial Indexes

The MyISAM, InnoDB, NDB, and ARCHIVE storage engines support spatial columns such as POINT and GEOMETRY. (Section 11.5, “Spatial Data Types”, describes the spatial data types.) However, support for spatial column indexing varies among engines. Spatial and nonspatial indexes on spatial columns are available according to the following rules.

Spatial indexes on spatial columns have these characteristics:

  • Available only for InnoDB and MyISAM tables. Specifying SPATIAL INDEX for other storage engines results in an error.

  • As of MySQL 8.0.12, an index on a spatial column must be a SPATIAL index. The SPATIAL keyword is thus optional but implicit for creating an index on a spatial column.

  • Available for single spatial columns only. A spatial index cannot be created over multiple spatial columns.

  • Indexed columns must be NOT NULL.

  • Column prefix lengths are prohibited. The full width of each column is indexed.

  • Not permitted for a primary key or unique index.

Nonspatial indexes on spatial columns (created with INDEX, UNIQUE, or PRIMARY KEY) have these characteristics:

  • Permitted for any storage engine that supports spatial columns except ARCHIVE.

  • Columns can be NULL unless the index is a primary key.

  • The index type for a non-SPATIAL index depends on the storage engine. Currently, B-tree is used.

  • Permitted for a column that can have NULL values only for InnoDB, MyISAM, and MEMORY tables.

Index Options

Following the key part list, index options can be given. An index_option value can be any of the following:

  • KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value

    For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for index key blocks. The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides a table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.

    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is not supported at the index level for InnoDB tables. See Section 13.1.20, “CREATE TABLE Syntax”.

  • index_type

    Some storage engines permit you to specify an index type when creating an index. For example:

    CREATE TABLE lookup (id INT) ENGINE = MEMORY;
    CREATE INDEX id_index ON lookup (id) USING BTREE;
    

    Table 13.1, “Index Types Per Storage Engine” shows the permissible index type values supported by different storage engines. Where multiple index types are listed, the first one is the default when no index type specifier is given. Storage engines not listed in the table do not support an index_type clause in index definitions.

    Table 13.1 Index Types Per Storage Engine

    Storage Engine Permissible Index Types
    InnoDB BTREE
    MyISAM BTREE
    MEMORY/HEAP HASH, BTREE
    NDB HASH, BTREE (see note in text)

    The index_type clause cannot be used for FULLTEXT INDEX or (prior to MySQL 8.0.12) SPATIAL INDEX specifications. Full-text index implementation is storage engine dependent. Spatial indexes are implemented as R-tree indexes.

    If you specify an index type that is not valid for a given storage engine, but another index type is available that the engine can use without affecting query results, the engine uses the available type. The parser recognizes RTREE as a type name. As of MySQL 8.0.12, this is permitted only for SPATIAL indexes. Prior to 8.0.12, RTREE cannot be specified for any storage engine.

    BTREE indexes are implemented by the NDB storage engine as T-tree indexes.

    Note

    For indexes on NDB table columns, the USING option can be specified only for a unique index or primary key. USING HASH prevents the creation of an ordered index; otherwise, creating a unique index or primary key on an NDB table automatically results in the creation of both an ordered index and a hash index, each of which indexes the same set of columns.

    For unique indexes that include one or more NULL columns of an NDB table, the hash index can be used only to look up literal values, which means that IS [NOT] NULL conditions require a full scan of the table. One workaround is to make sure that a unique index using one or more NULL columns on such a table is always created in such a way that it includes the ordered index; that is, avoid employing USING HASH when creating the index.

    If you specify an index type that is not valid for a given storage engine, but another index type is available that the engine can use without affecting query results, the engine uses the available type. The parser recognizes RTREE as a type name, but currently this cannot be specified for any storage engine.

    Note

    Use of the index_type option before the ON tbl_name clause is deprecated; support for use of the option in this position will be removed in a future MySQL release. If an index_type option is given in both the earlier and later positions, the final option applies.

    TYPE type_name is recognized as a synonym for USING type_name. However, USING is the preferred form.

    The following tables show index characteristics for the storage engines that support the index_type option.

    Table 13.2 InnoDB Storage Engine Index Characteristics

    Index Class Index Type Stores NULL VALUES Permits Multiple NULL Values IS NULL Scan Type IS NOT NULL Scan Type
    Primary key BTREE No No N/A N/A
    Unique BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    Key BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    FULLTEXT N/A Yes Yes Table Table
    SPATIAL N/A No No N/A N/A

    Table 13.3 MyISAM Storage Engine Index Characteristics

    Index Class Index Type Stores NULL VALUES Permits Multiple NULL Values IS NULL Scan Type IS NOT NULL Scan Type
    Primary key BTREE No No N/A N/A
    Unique BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    Key BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    FULLTEXT N/A Yes Yes Table Table
    SPATIAL N/A No No N/A N/A

    Table 13.4 MEMORY Storage Engine Index Characteristics

    Index Class Index Type Stores NULL VALUES Permits Multiple NULL Values IS NULL Scan Type IS NOT NULL Scan Type
    Primary key BTREE No No N/A N/A
    Unique BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    Key BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    Primary key HASH No No N/A N/A
    Unique HASH Yes Yes Index Index
    Key HASH Yes Yes Index Index

    Table 13.5 NDB Storage Engine Index Characteristics

    Index Class Index Type Stores NULL VALUES Permits Multiple NULL Values IS NULL Scan Type IS NOT NULL Scan Type
    Primary key BTREE No No Index Index
    Unique BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    Key BTREE Yes Yes Index Index
    Primary key HASH No No Table (see note 1) Table (see note 1)
    Unique HASH Yes Yes Table (see note 1) Table (see note 1)
    Key HASH Yes Yes Table (see note 1) Table (see note 1)

    Table note:

    1. USING HASH prevents creation of an implicit ordered index.

  • WITH PARSER parser_name

    This option can be used only with FULLTEXT indexes. It associates a parser plugin with the index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. InnoDB and MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. See Full-Text Parser Plugins and Section 29.2.4.4, “Writing Full-Text Parser Plugins” for more information.

  • COMMENT 'string'

    Index definitions can include an optional comment of up to 1024 characters.

    The MERGE_THRESHOLD for index pages can be configured for individual indexes using the index_option COMMENT clause of the CREATE INDEX statement. For example:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (id INT);
    CREATE INDEX id_index ON t1 (id) COMMENT 'MERGE_THRESHOLD=40';
    

    If the page-full percentage for an index page falls below the MERGE_THRESHOLD value when a row is deleted or when a row is shortened by an update operation, InnoDB attempts to merge the index page with a neighboring index page. The default MERGE_THRESHOLD value is 50, which is the previously hardcoded value.

    MERGE_THRESHOLD can also be defined at the index level and table level using CREATE TABLE and ALTER TABLE statements. For more information, see Section 15.8.11, “Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages”.

  • VISIBLE, INVISIBLE

    Specify index visibility. Indexes are visible by default. An invisible index is not used by the optimizer. Specification of index visibility applies to indexes other than primary keys (either explicit or implicit). For more information, see Section 8.3.12, “Invisible Indexes”.

Table Copying and Locking Options

ALGORITHM and LOCK clauses may be given to influence the table copying method and level of concurrency for reading and writing the table while its indexes are being modified. They have the same meaning as for the ALTER TABLE statement. For more information, see Section 13.1.9, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”

NDB Cluster supports online operations using the same ALGORITHM=INPLACE syntax used with the standard MySQL Server. See Section 22.5.14, “Online Operations with ALTER TABLE in NDB Cluster”, for more information.

13.1.16 CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax

CREATE LOGFILE GROUP logfile_group
    ADD UNDOFILE 'undo_file'
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] initial_size]
    [UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE [=] undo_buffer_size]
    [REDO_BUFFER_SIZE [=] redo_buffer_size]
    [NODEGROUP [=] nodegroup_id]
    [WAIT]
    [COMMENT [=] 'string']
    ENGINE [=] engine_name

This statement creates a new log file group named logfile_group having a single UNDO file named 'undo_file'. A CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement has one and only one ADD UNDOFILE clause. For rules covering the naming of log file groups, see Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

Note

All NDB Cluster Disk Data objects share the same namespace. This means that each Disk Data object must be uniquely named (and not merely each Disk Data object of a given type). For example, you cannot have a tablespace and a log file group with the same name, or a tablespace and a data file with the same name.

There can be only one log file group per NDB Cluster instance at any given time.

The optional INITIAL_SIZE parameter sets the UNDO file's initial size; if not specified, it defaults to 128M (128 megabytes). The optional UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE parameter sets the size used by the UNDO buffer for the log file group; The default value for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE is 8M (eight megabytes); this value cannot exceed the amount of system memory available. Both of these parameters are specified in bytes. You may optionally follow either or both of these with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (for megabytes) or G (for gigabytes).

Memory used for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE comes from the global pool whose size is determined by the value of the SharedGlobalMemory data node configuration parameter. This includes any default value implied for this option by the setting of the InitialLogFileGroup data node configuration parameter.

The maximum permitted for UNDO_BUFFER_SIZE is 629145600 (600 MB).

On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB). (Bug #29186)

The minimum allowed value for INITIAL_SIZE is 1048576 (1 MB).

The ENGINE option determines the storage engine to be used by this log file group, with engine_name being the name of the storage engine. In MySQL 8.0, this must be NDB (or NDBCLUSTER). If ENGINE is not set, MySQL tries to use the engine specified by the default_storage_engine server system variable (formerly storage_engine). In any case, if the engine is not specified as NDB or NDBCLUSTER, the CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement appears to succeed but actually fails to create the log file group, as shown here:

mysql> CREATE LOGFILE GROUP lg1
    ->     ADD UNDOFILE 'undo.dat' INITIAL_SIZE = 10M;
Query OK, 0 rows affected, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS;
+-------+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Level | Code | Message                                                                                        |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Error | 1478 | Table storage engine 'InnoDB' does not support the create option 'TABLESPACE or LOGFILE GROUP' |
+-------+------+------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> DROP LOGFILE GROUP lg1 ENGINE = NDB;            
ERROR 1529 (HY000): Failed to drop LOGFILE GROUP

mysql> CREATE LOGFILE GROUP lg1
    ->     ADD UNDOFILE 'undo.dat' INITIAL_SIZE = 10M
    ->     ENGINE = NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.97 sec)

The fact that the CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement does not actually return an error when a non-NDB storage engine is named, but rather appears to succeed, is a known issue which we hope to address in a future release of NDB Cluster.

REDO_BUFFER_SIZE, NODEGROUP, WAIT, and COMMENT are parsed but ignored, and so have no effect in MySQL 8.0. These options are intended for future expansion.

When used with ENGINE [=] NDB, a log file group and associated UNDO log file are created on each Cluster data node. You can verify that the UNDO files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. For example:

mysql> SELECT LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER, EXTRA
    -> FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
    -> WHERE FILE_NAME = 'undo_10.dat';
+--------------------+----------------------+----------------+
| LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME | LOGFILE_GROUP_NUMBER | EXTRA          |
+--------------------+----------------------+----------------+
| lg_3               |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=3 |
| lg_3               |                   11 | CLUSTER_NODE=4 |
+--------------------+----------------------+----------------+
2 rows in set (0.06 sec)

CREATE LOGFILE GROUP is useful only with Disk Data storage for NDB Cluster. See Section 22.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”.

13.1.17 CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION Syntax

CREATE
    [DEFINER = user]
    PROCEDURE sp_name ([proc_parameter[,...]])
    [characteristic ...] routine_body

CREATE
    [DEFINER = user]
    FUNCTION sp_name ([func_parameter[,...]])
    RETURNS type
    [characteristic ...] routine_body

proc_parameter:
    [ IN | OUT | INOUT ] param_name type

func_parameter:
    param_name type

type:
    Any valid MySQL data type

characteristic:
    COMMENT 'string'
  | LANGUAGE SQL
  | [NOT] DETERMINISTIC
  | { CONTAINS SQL | NO SQL | READS SQL DATA | MODIFIES SQL DATA }
  | SQL SECURITY { DEFINER | INVOKER }

routine_body:
    Valid SQL routine statement

These statements create stored routines. By default, a routine is associated with the default database. To associate the routine explicitly with a given database, specify the name as db_name.sp_name when you create it.

The CREATE FUNCTION statement is also used in MySQL to support UDFs (user-defined functions). See Section 29.4, “Adding New Functions to MySQL”. A UDF can be regarded as an external stored function. Stored functions share their namespace with UDFs. See Section 9.2.5, “Function Name Parsing and Resolution”, for the rules describing how the server interprets references to different kinds of functions.

To invoke a stored procedure, use the CALL statement (see Section 13.2.1, “CALL Syntax”). To invoke a stored function, refer to it in an expression. The function returns a value during expression evaluation.

CREATE PROCEDURE and CREATE FUNCTION require the CREATE ROUTINE privilege. If the DEFINER clause is present, the privileges required depend on the user value, as discussed in Section 24.6, “Stored Object Access Control”. If binary logging is enabled, CREATE FUNCTION might require the SUPER privilege, as discussed in Section 24.7, “Stored Program Binary Logging”.

By default, MySQL automatically grants the ALTER ROUTINE and EXECUTE privileges to the routine creator. This behavior can be changed by disabling the automatic_sp_privileges system variable. See Section 24.2.2, “Stored Routines and MySQL Privileges”.

The DEFINER and SQL SECURITY clauses specify the security context to be used when checking access privileges at routine execution time, as described later in this section.

If the routine name is the same as the name of a built-in SQL function, a syntax error occurs unless you use a space between the name and the following parenthesis when defining the routine or invoking it later. For this reason, avoid using the names of existing SQL functions for your own stored routines.

The IGNORE_SPACE SQL mode applies to built-in functions, not to stored routines. It is always permissible to have spaces after a stored routine name, regardless of whether IGNORE_SPACE is enabled.

The parameter list enclosed within parentheses must always be present. If there are no parameters, an empty parameter list of () should be used. Parameter names are not case sensitive.

Each parameter is an IN parameter by default. To specify otherwise for a parameter, use the keyword OUT or INOUT before the parameter name.

Note

Specifying a parameter as IN, OUT, or INOUT is valid only for a PROCEDURE. For a FUNCTION, parameters are always regarded as IN parameters.

An IN parameter passes a value into a procedure. The procedure might modify the value, but the modification is not visible to the caller when the procedure returns. An OUT parameter passes a value from the procedure back to the caller. Its initial value is NULL within the procedure, and its value is visible to the caller when the procedure returns. An INOUT parameter is initialized by the caller, can be modified by the procedure, and any change made by the procedure is visible to the caller when the procedure returns.

For each OUT or INOUT parameter, pass a user-defined variable in the CALL statement that invokes the procedure so that you can obtain its value when the procedure returns. If you are calling the procedure from within another stored procedure or function, you can also pass a routine parameter or local routine variable as an OUT or INOUT parameter. If you are calling the procedure from within a trigger, you can also pass NEW.col_name as an OUT or INOUT parameter.

For information about the effect of unhandled conditions on procedure parameters, see Section 13.6.7.8, “Condition Handling and OUT or INOUT Parameters”.

Routine parameters cannot be referenced in statements prepared within the routine; see Section 24.8, “Restrictions on Stored Programs”.

The following example shows a simple stored procedure that uses an OUT parameter:

mysql> delimiter //

mysql> CREATE PROCEDURE simpleproc (OUT param1 INT)
    -> BEGIN
    ->   SELECT COUNT(*) INTO param1 FROM t;
    -> END//
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> delimiter ;

mysql> CALL simpleproc(@a);
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT @a;
+------+
| @a   |
+------+
| 3    |
+------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

The example uses the mysql client delimiter command to change the statement delimiter from ; to // while the procedure is being defined. This enables the ; delimiter used in the procedure body to be passed through to the server rather than being interpreted by mysql itself. See Section 24.1, “Defining Stored Programs”.

The RETURNS clause may be specified only for a FUNCTION, for which it is mandatory. It indicates the return type of the function, and the function body must contain a RETURN value statement. If the RETURN statement returns a value of a different type, the value is coerced to the proper type. For example, if a function specifies an ENUM or SET value in the RETURNS clause, but the RETURN statement returns an integer, the value returned from the function is the string for the corresponding ENUM member of set of SET members.

The following example function takes a parameter, performs an operation using an SQL function, and returns the result. In this case, it is unnecessary to use delimiter because the function definition contains no internal ; statement delimiters:

mysql> CREATE FUNCTION hello (s CHAR(20))
mysql> RETURNS CHAR(50) DETERMINISTIC
    -> RETURN CONCAT('Hello, ',s,'!');
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.00 sec)

mysql> SELECT hello('world');
+----------------+
| hello('world') |
+----------------+
| Hello, world!  |
+----------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

Parameter types and function return types can be declared to use any valid data type. The COLLATE attribute can be used if preceded by a CHARACTER SET specification.

The routine_body consists of a valid SQL routine statement. This can be a simple statement such as SELECT or INSERT, or a compound statement written using BEGIN and END. Compound statements can contain declarations, loops, and other control structure statements. The syntax for these statements is described in Section 13.6, “Compound-Statement Syntax”. In practice, stored functions tend to use compound statements, unless the body consists of a single RETURN statement.

MySQL permits routines to contain DDL statements, such as CREATE and DROP. MySQL also permits stored procedures (but not stored functions) to contain SQL transaction statements such as COMMIT. Stored functions may not contain statements that perform explicit or implicit commit or rollback. Support for these statements is not required by the SQL standard, which states that each DBMS vendor may decide whether to permit them.

Statements that return a result set can be used within a stored procedure but not within a stored function. This prohibition includes SELECT statements that do not have an INTO var_list clause and other statements such as SHOW, EXPLAIN, and CHECK TABLE. For statements that can be determined at function definition time to return a result set, a Not allowed to return a result set from a function error occurs (ER_SP_NO_RETSET). For statements that can be determined only at runtime to return a result set, a PROCEDURE %s can't return a result set in the given context error occurs (ER_SP_BADSELECT).

USE statements within stored routines are not permitted. When a routine is invoked, an implicit USE db_name is performed (and undone when the routine terminates). The causes the routine to have the given default database while it executes. References to objects in databases other than the routine default database should be qualified with the appropriate database name.

For additional information about statements that are not permitted in stored routines, see Section 24.8, “Restrictions on Stored Programs”.

For information about invoking stored procedures from within programs written in a language that has a MySQL interface, see Section 13.2.1, “CALL Syntax”.

MySQL stores the sql_mode system variable setting in effect when a routine is created or altered, and always executes the routine with this setting in force, regardless of the current server SQL mode when the routine begins executing.

The switch from the SQL mode of the invoker to that of the routine occurs after evaluation of arguments and assignment of the resulting values to routine parameters. If you define a routine in strict SQL mode but invoke it in nonstrict mode, assignment of arguments to routine parameters does not take place in strict mode. If you require that expressions passed to a routine be assigned in strict SQL mode, you should invoke the routine with strict mode in effect.

The COMMENT characteristic is a MySQL extension, and may be used to describe the stored routine. This information is displayed by the SHOW CREATE PROCEDURE and SHOW CREATE FUNCTION statements.

The LANGUAGE characteristic indicates the language in which the routine is written. The server ignores this characteristic; only SQL routines are supported.

A routine is considered deterministic if it always produces the same result for the same input parameters, and not deterministic otherwise. If neither DETERMINISTIC nor NOT DETERMINISTIC is given in the routine definition, the default is NOT DETERMINISTIC. To declare that a function is deterministic, you must specify DETERMINISTIC explicitly.

Assessment of the nature of a routine is based on the honesty of the creator: MySQL does not check that a routine declared DETERMINISTIC is free of statements that produce nondeterministic results. However, misdeclaring a routine might affect results or affect performance. Declaring a nondeterministic routine as DETERMINISTIC might lead to unexpected results by causing the optimizer to make incorrect execution plan choices. Declaring a deterministic routine as NONDETERMINISTIC might diminish performance by causing available optimizations not to be used.

If binary logging is enabled, the DETERMINISTIC characteristic affects which routine definitions MySQL accepts. See Section 24.7, “Stored Program Binary Logging”.

A routine that contains the NOW() function (or its synonyms) or RAND() is nondeterministic, but it might still be replication-safe. For NOW(), the binary log includes the timestamp and replicates correctly. RAND() also replicates correctly as long as it is called only a single time during the execution of a routine. (You can consider the routine execution timestamp and random number seed as implicit inputs that are identical on the master and slave.)

Several characteristics provide information about the nature of data use by the routine. In MySQL, these characteristics are advisory only. The server does not use them to constrain what kinds of statements a routine will be permitted to execute.

  • CONTAINS SQL indicates that the routine does not contain statements that read or write data. This is the default if none of these characteristics is given explicitly. Examples of such statements are SET @x = 1 or DO RELEASE_LOCK('abc'), which execute but neither read nor write data.

  • NO SQL indicates that the routine contains no SQL statements.

  • READS SQL DATA indicates that the routine contains statements that read data (for example, SELECT), but not statements that write data.

  • MODIFIES SQL DATA indicates that the routine contains statements that may write data (for example, INSERT or DELETE).

The SQL SECURITY characteristic can be DEFINER or INVOKER to specify the security context; that is, whether the routine executes using the privileges of the account named in the routine DEFINER clause or the user who invokes it. This account must have permission to access the database with which the routine is associated. The default value is DEFINER. The user who invokes the routine must have the EXECUTE privilege for it, as must the DEFINER account if the routine executes in definer security context.

The DEFINER clause specifies the MySQL account to be used when checking access privileges at routine execution time for routines that have the SQL SECURITY DEFINER characteristic.

If the DEFINER clause is present, the user value should be a MySQL account specified as 'user_name'@'host_name', CURRENT_USER, or CURRENT_USER(). The permitted user values depend on the privileges you hold, as discussed in Section 24.6, “Stored Object Access Control”. Also see that section for additional information about stored routine security.

If the DEFINER clause is omitted, the default definer is the user who executes the CREATE PROCEDURE or CREATE FUNCTION statement. This is the same as specifying DEFINER = CURRENT_USER explicitly.

Within the body of a stored routine that is defined with the SQL SECURITY DEFINER characteristic, the CURRENT_USER function returns the routine's DEFINER value. For information about user auditing within stored routines, see Section 6.2.22, “SQL-Based Account Activity Auditing”.

Consider the following procedure, which displays a count of the number of MySQL accounts listed in the mysql.user system table:

CREATE DEFINER = 'admin'@'localhost' PROCEDURE account_count()
BEGIN
  SELECT 'Number of accounts:', COUNT(*) FROM mysql.user;
END;

The procedure is assigned a DEFINER account of 'admin'@'localhost' no matter which user defines it. It executes with the privileges of that account no matter which user invokes it (because the default security characteristic is DEFINER). The procedure succeeds or fails depending on whether invoker has the EXECUTE privilege for it and 'admin'@'localhost' has the SELECT privilege for the mysql.user table.

Now suppose that the procedure is defined with the SQL SECURITY INVOKER characteristic:

CREATE DEFINER = 'admin'@'localhost' PROCEDURE account_count()
SQL SECURITY INVOKER
BEGIN
  SELECT 'Number of accounts:', COUNT(*) FROM mysql.user;
END;

The procedure still has a DEFINER of 'admin'@'localhost', but in this case, it executes with the privileges of the invoking user. Thus, the procedure succeeds or fails depending on whether the invoker has the EXECUTE privilege for it and the SELECT privilege for the mysql.user table.

The server handles the data type of a routine parameter, local routine variable created with DECLARE, or function return value as follows:

  • Assignments are checked for data type mismatches and overflow. Conversion and overflow problems result in warnings, or errors in strict SQL mode.

  • Only scalar values can be assigned. For example, a statement such as SET x = (SELECT 1, 2) is invalid.

  • For character data types, if CHARACTER SET is includedd in the declaration, the specified character set and its default collation is used. If the COLLATE attribute is also present, that collation is used rather than the default collation.

    If CHARACTER SET and COLLATE are not present, the database character set and collation in effect at routine creation time are used. To avoid having the server use the database character set and collation, provide an explicit CHARACTER SET and a COLLATE attribute for character data parameters.

    If you change the database default character set or collation, stored routines that use the database defaults must be dropped and recreated so that they use the new defaults.

    The database character set and collation are given by the value of the character_set_database and collation_database system variables. For more information, see Section 10.3.3, “Database Character Set and Collation”.

13.1.18 CREATE SERVER Syntax

CREATE SERVER server_name
    FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER wrapper_name
    OPTIONS (option [, option] ...)

option:
  { HOST character-literal
  | DATABASE character-literal
  | USER character-literal
  | PASSWORD character-literal
  | SOCKET character-literal
  | OWNER character-literal
  | PORT numeric-literal }

This statement creates the definition of a server for use with the FEDERATED storage engine. The CREATE SERVER statement creates a new row in the servers table in the mysql database. This statement requires the SUPER privilege.

The server_name should be a unique reference to the server. Server definitions are global within the scope of the server, it is not possible to qualify the server definition to a specific database. server_name has a maximum length of 64 characters (names longer than 64 characters are silently truncated), and is case insensitive. You may specify the name as a quoted string.

The wrapper_name is an identifier and may be quoted with single quotation marks.

For each option you must specify either a character literal or numeric literal. Character literals are UTF-8, support a maximum length of 64 characters and default to a blank (empty) string. String literals are silently truncated to 64 characters. Numeric literals must be a number between 0 and 9999, default value is 0.

Note

The OWNER option is currently not applied, and has no effect on the ownership or operation of the server connection that is created.

The CREATE SERVER statement creates an entry in the mysql.servers table that can later be used with the CREATE TABLE statement when creating a FEDERATED table. The options that you specify will be used to populate the columns in the mysql.servers table. The table columns are Server_name, Host, Db, Username, Password, Port and Socket.

For example:

CREATE SERVER s
FOREIGN DATA WRAPPER mysql
OPTIONS (USER 'Remote', HOST '198.51.100.106', DATABASE 'test');

Be sure to specify all options necessary to establish a connection to the server. The user name, host name, and database name are mandatory. Other options might be required as well, such as password.

The data stored in the table can be used when creating a connection to a FEDERATED table:

CREATE TABLE t (s1 INT) ENGINE=FEDERATED CONNECTION='s';

For more information, see Section 16.8, “The FEDERATED Storage Engine”.

CREATE SERVER causes an implicit commit. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

CREATE SERVER is not written to the binary log, regardless of the logging format that is in use.

13.1.19 CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM Syntax

CREATE OR REPLACE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
    srid srs_attribute ...

CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM
    [IF NOT EXISTS]
    srid srs_attribute ...

srs_attribute: {
    NAME 'srs_name'
  | DEFINITION 'definition'
  | ORGANIZATION 'org_name' IDENTIFIED BY org_id
  | DESCRIPTION 'description'
}

srid, org_id: 32-bit unsigned integer

This statement creates a spatial reference system (SRS) definition and stores it in the data dictionary. The definition can be inspected using the INFORMATION_SCHEMA ST_SPATIAL_REFERENCE_SYSTEMS table. This statement requires the SUPER privilege.

If neither OR REPLACE nor IF NOT EXISTS is specified, an error occurs if an SRS definition with the SRID value already exists.

With CREATE OR REPLACE syntax, any existing SRS definition with the same SRID value is replaced, unless the SRID value is used by some column in an existing table. In that case, an error occurs. For example:

mysql> CREATE OR REPLACE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM 4326 ...;
ERROR 3716 (SR005): Can't modify SRID 4326. There is at
least one column depending on it.

To identify which column or columns use the SRID, use this query:

SELECT * FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.ST_GEOMETRY_COLUMNS WHERE SRS_ID=4326;

With CREATE ... IF NOT EXISTS syntax, any existing SRS definition with the same SRID value causes the new definition to be ignored and a warning occurs.

SRID values must be in the range of 32-bit unsigned integers, with these restrictions:

  • SRID 0 is a valid SRID but cannot be used with CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM.

  • If the value is in a reserved SRID range, a warning occurs. Reserved ranges are [0, 32767] (reserved by EPSG), [60,000,000, 69,999,999] (reserved by EPSG), and [2,000,000,000, 2,147,483,647] (reserved by MySQL). EPSG stands for the European Petroleum Survey Group.

  • Users should not create SRSs with SRIDs in the reserved ranges. Doing so runs the risk that the SRIDs will conflict with future SRS definitions distributed with MySQL, with the result that the new system-provided SRSs are not installed for MySQL upgrades or that the user-defined SRSs are overwritten.

Attributes for the statement must satisfy these conditions:

  • Attributes can be given in any order, but no attribute can be given more than once.

  • The NAME and DEFINITION attributes are mandatory.

  • The NAME srs_name attribute value must be unique. The combination of the ORGANIZATION org_name and org_id attribute values must be unique.

  • The NAME srs_name attribute value and ORGANIZATION org_name attribute value cannot be empty or begin or end with whitespace.

  • String values in attribute specifications cannot contain control characters, including newline.

  • The following table shows the maximum lengths for string attribute values.

    Table 13.6 CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM Attribute Lengths

    Attribute Maximum Length (characters)
    NAME 80
    DEFINITION 4096
    ORGANIZATION 256
    DESCRIPTION 2048

Here is an example CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM statement. The DEFINITION value is reformatted across multiple lines for readability. (For the statement to be legal, the value actually must be given on a single line.)

CREATE SPATIAL REFERENCE SYSTEM 4120
NAME 'Greek'
ORGANIZATION 'EPSG' IDENTIFIED BY 4120
DEFINITION
  'GEOGCS["Greek",DATUM["Greek",SPHEROID["Bessel 1841",
  6377397.155,299.1528128,AUTHORITY["EPSG","7004"]],
  AUTHORITY["EPSG","6120"]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0,
  AUTHORITY["EPSG","8901"]],UNIT["degree",0.017453292519943278,
  AUTHORITY["EPSG","9122"]],AXIS["Lat",NORTH],AXIS["Lon",EAST],
  AUTHORITY["EPSG","4120"]]';

The grammar for SRS definitions is based on the grammar defined in OpenGIS Implementation Specification: Coordinate Transformation Services, Revision 1.00, OGC 01-009, January 12, 2001, Section 7.2. This specification is available at http://www.opengeospatial.org/standards/ct.

MySQL incorporates these changes to the specification:

  • Only the <horz cs> production rule is implemented (that is, geographic and projected SRSs).

  • There is an optional, nonstandard <authority> clause for <parameter>. This makes it possible to recognize projection parameters by authority instead of name.

  • The specification does not make AXIS clauses mandatory in GEOGCS spatial reference system definitions. However, if there are no AXIS clauses, MySQL cannot determine whether a definition has axes in latitude-longitude order or longitude-latitude order. MySQL enforces the nonstandard requirement that each GEOGCS definition must include two AXIS clauses. One must be NORTH or SOUTH, and the other EAST or WEST. The AXIS clause order determines whether the definition has axes in latitude-longitude order or longitude-latitude order.

  • SRS definitions may not contain newlines.

If an SRS definition specifies an authority code for the projection (which is recommended), an error occurs if the definition is missing mandatory parameters. In this case, the error message indicates what the problem is. The projection methods and mandatory parameters that MySQL supports are shown in Table 13.7, “Supported Spatial Reference System Projection Methods” and Table 13.8, “Spatial Reference System Projection Parameters”.

For additional information about writing SRS definitions for MySQL, see Geographic Spatial Reference Systems in MySQL 8.0 and Projected Spatial Reference Systems in MySQL 8.0

The following table shows the projection methods that MySQL supports. MySQL permits unknown projection methods but cannot check the defintion for mandatory paramters and cannot convert spatial data to or from an unknown projection. For detailed explanations of how each projection works, including formulas, see EPSG Guidance Note 7-2.

Table 13.7 Supported Spatial Reference System Projection Methods

EPSG Code Projection Name Mandatory Parameters (EPSG Codes)
1024 Popular Visualisation Pseudo Mercator 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
1027 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area (Spherical) 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
1028 Equidistant Cylindrical 8823, 8802, 8806, 8807
1029 Equidistant Cylindrical (Spherical) 8823, 8802, 8806, 8807
1041 Krovak (North Orientated) 8811, 8833, 1036, 8818, 8819, 8806, 8807
1042 Krovak Modified 8811, 8833, 1036, 8818, 8819, 8806, 8807, 8617, 8618, 1026, 1027, 1028, 1029, 1030, 1031, 1032, 1033, 1034, 1035
1043 Krovak Modified (North Orientated) 8811, 8833, 1036, 8818, 8819, 8806, 8807, 8617, 8618, 1026, 1027, 1028, 1029, 1030, 1031, 1032, 1033, 1034, 1035
1051 Lambert Conic Conformal (2SP Michigan) 8821, 8822, 8823, 8824, 8826, 8827, 1038
1052 Colombia Urban 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807, 1039
9801 Lambert Conic Conformal (1SP) 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9802 Lambert Conic Conformal (2SP) 8821, 8822, 8823, 8824, 8826, 8827
9803 Lambert Conic Conformal (2SP Belgium) 8821, 8822, 8823, 8824, 8826, 8827
9804 Mercator (variant A) 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9805 Mercator (variant B) 8823, 8802, 8806, 8807
9806 Cassini-Soldner 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9807 Transverse Mercator 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9808 Transverse Mercator (South Orientated) 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9809 Oblique Stereographic 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9810 Polar Stereographic (variant A) 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9811 New Zealand Map Grid 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9812 Hotine Oblique Mercator (variant A) 8811, 8812, 8813, 8814, 8815, 8806, 8807
9813 Laborde Oblique Mercator 8811, 8812, 8813, 8815, 8806, 8807
9815 Hotine Oblique Mercator (variant B) 8811, 8812, 8813, 8814, 8815, 8816, 8817
9816 Tunisia Mining Grid 8821, 8822, 8826, 8827
9817 Lambert Conic Near-Conformal 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9818 American Polyconic 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9819 Krovak 8811, 8833, 1036, 8818, 8819, 8806, 8807
9820 Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9822 Albers Equal Area 8821, 8822, 8823, 8824, 8826, 8827
9824 Transverse Mercator Zoned Grid System 8801, 8830, 8831, 8805, 8806, 8807
9826 Lambert Conic Conformal (West Orientated) 8801, 8802, 8805, 8806, 8807
9828 Bonne (South Orientated) 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9829 Polar Stereographic (variant B) 8832, 8833, 8806, 8807
9830 Polar Stereographic (variant C) 8832, 8833, 8826, 8827
9831 Guam Projection 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9832 Modified Azimuthal Equidistant 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9833 Hyperbolic Cassini-Soldner 8801, 8802, 8806, 8807
9834 Lambert Cylindrical Equal Area (Spherical) 8823, 8802, 8806, 8807
9835 Lambert Cylindrical Equal Area 8823, 8802, 8806, 8807

The following table shows the projection parameters that MySQL recognizes. Recognition occurs primarily by authority code. If there is no authority code, MySQL falls back to case-insensitive string matching on the parameter name. For details about each parameter, look it up by code in the EPSG Online Registry.

Table 13.8 Spatial Reference System Projection Parameters

EPSG Code Fallback Name (Recognized by MySQL) EPSG Name
1026 c1 C1
1027 c2 C2
1028 c3 C3
1029 c4 C4
1030 c5 C5
1031 c6 C6
1032 c7 C7
1033 c8 C8
1034 c9 C9
1035 c10 C10
1036 azimuth Co-latitude of cone axis
1038 ellipsoid_scale_factor Ellipsoid scaling factor
1039 projection_plane_height_at_origin Projection plane origin height
8617 evaluation_point_ordinate_1 Ordinate 1 of evaluation point
8618 evaluation_point_ordinate_2 Ordinate 2 of evaluation point
8801 latitude_of_origin Latitude of natural origin
8802 central_meridian Longitude of natural origin
8805 scale_factor Scale factor at natural origin
8806 false_easting False easting
8807 false_northing False northing
8811 latitude_of_center Latitude of projection centre
8812 longitude_of_center Longitude of projection centre
8813 azimuth Azimuth of initial line
8814 rectified_grid_angle Angle from Rectified to Skew Grid
8815 scale_factor Scale factor on initial line
8816 false_easting Easting at projection centre
8817 false_northing Northing at projection centre
8818 pseudo_standard_parallel_1 Latitude of pseudo standard parallel
8819 scale_factor Scale factor on pseudo standard parallel
8821 latitude_of_origin Latitude of false origin
8822 central_meridian Longitude of false origin
8823 standard_parallel_1, standard_parallel1 Latitude of 1st standard parallel
8824 standard_parallel_2, standard_parallel2 Latitude of 2nd standard parallel
8826 false_easting Easting at false origin
8827 false_northing Northing at false origin
8830 initial_longitude Initial longitude
8831 zone_width Zone width
8832 standard_parallel Latitude of standard parallel
8833 longitude_of_center Longitude of origin

13.1.20 CREATE TABLE Syntax

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    (create_definition,...)
    [table_options]
    [partition_options]

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    [(create_definition,...)]
    [table_options]
    [partition_options]
    [IGNORE | REPLACE]
    [AS] query_expression

CREATE [TEMPORARY] TABLE [IF NOT EXISTS] tbl_name
    { LIKE old_tbl_name | (LIKE old_tbl_name) }

create_definition:
    col_name column_definition
  | {INDEX|KEY} [index_name] [index_type] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | {FULLTEXT|SPATIAL} [INDEX|KEY] [index_name] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] PRIMARY KEY
      [index_type] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] UNIQUE [INDEX|KEY]
      [index_name] [index_type] (key_part,...)
      [index_option] ...
  | [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
      [index_name] (col_name,...)
      reference_definition
  | check_constraint_definition

column_definition:
    data_type [NOT NULL | NULL] [DEFAULT {literal | (expr)} ]
      [AUTO_INCREMENT] [UNIQUE [KEY]] [[PRIMARY] KEY]
      [COMMENT 'string']
      [COLLATE collation_name]
      [COLUMN_FORMAT {FIXED|DYNAMIC|DEFAULT}]
      [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY}]
      [reference_definition]
      [check_constraint_definition]
  | data_type
      [COLLATE collation_name]
      [GENERATED ALWAYS] AS (expr)
      [VIRTUAL | STORED] [NOT NULL | NULL]
      [UNIQUE [KEY]] [[PRIMARY] KEY]
      [COMMENT 'string']
      [reference_definition]
      [check_constraint_definition]

data_type:
    (see Chapter 11, Data Types)

key_part: {col_name [(length)] | (expr)} [ASC | DESC]

index_type:
    USING {BTREE | HASH}

index_option:
    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | index_type
  | WITH PARSER parser_name
  | COMMENT 'string'
  | {VISIBLE | INVISIBLE}

check_constraint_definition:
    [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] CHECK (expr) [[NOT] ENFORCED]

reference_definition:
    REFERENCES tbl_name (key_part,...)
      [MATCH FULL | MATCH PARTIAL | MATCH SIMPLE]
      [ON DELETE reference_option]
      [ON UPDATE reference_option]

reference_option:
    RESTRICT | CASCADE | SET NULL | NO ACTION | SET DEFAULT

table_options:
    table_option [[,] table_option] ...

table_option:
    AUTO_INCREMENT [=] value
  | AVG_ROW_LENGTH [=] value
  | [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET [=] charset_name
  | CHECKSUM [=] {0 | 1}
  | [DEFAULT] COLLATE [=] collation_name
  | COMMENT [=] 'string'
  | COMPRESSION [=] {'ZLIB'|'LZ4'|'NONE'}
  | CONNECTION [=] 'connect_string'
  | {DATA|INDEX} DIRECTORY [=] 'absolute path to directory'
  | DELAY_KEY_WRITE [=] {0 | 1}
  | ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}
  | ENGINE [=] engine_name
  | INSERT_METHOD [=] { NO | FIRST | LAST }
  | KEY_BLOCK_SIZE [=] value
  | MAX_ROWS [=] value
  | MIN_ROWS [=] value
  | PACK_KEYS [=] {0 | 1 | DEFAULT}
  | PASSWORD [=] 'string'
  | ROW_FORMAT [=] {DEFAULT|DYNAMIC|FIXED|COMPRESSED|REDUNDANT|COMPACT}
  | STATS_AUTO_RECALC [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_PERSISTENT [=] {DEFAULT|0|1}
  | STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES [=] value
  | TABLESPACE tablespace_name [STORAGE {DISK|MEMORY}]
  | UNION [=] (tbl_name[,tbl_name]...)

partition_options:
    PARTITION BY
        { [LINEAR] HASH(expr)
        | [LINEAR] KEY [ALGORITHM={1|2}] (column_list)
        | RANGE{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)}
        | LIST{(expr) | COLUMNS(column_list)} }
    [PARTITIONS num]
    [SUBPARTITION BY
        { [LINEAR] HASH(expr)
        | [LINEAR] KEY [ALGORITHM={1|2}] (column_list) }
      [SUBPARTITIONS num]
    ]
    [(partition_definition [, partition_definition] ...)]

partition_definition:
    PARTITION partition_name
        [VALUES
            {LESS THAN {(expr | value_list) | MAXVALUE}
            |
            IN (value_list)}]
        [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name]
        [COMMENT [=] 'string' ]
        [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir']
        [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir']
        [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows]
        [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows]
        [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name]
        [(subpartition_definition [, subpartition_definition] ...)]

subpartition_definition:
    SUBPARTITION logical_name
        [[STORAGE] ENGINE [=] engine_name]
        [COMMENT [=] 'string' ]
        [DATA DIRECTORY [=] 'data_dir']
        [INDEX DIRECTORY [=] 'index_dir']
        [MAX_ROWS [=] max_number_of_rows]
        [MIN_ROWS [=] min_number_of_rows]
        [TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name]

query_expression:
    SELECT ...   (Some valid select or union statement)

CREATE TABLE creates a table with the given name. You must have the CREATE privilege for the table.

By default, tables are created in the default database, using the InnoDB storage engine. An error occurs if the table exists, if there is no default database, or if the database does not exist.

MySQL has no limit on the number of tables. The underlying file system may have a limit on the number of files that represent tables. Individual storage engines may impose engine-specific constraints. InnoDB permits up to 4 billion tables.

For information about the physical representation of a table, see Section 13.1.20.2, “Files Created by CREATE TABLE”.

The original CREATE TABLE statement, including all specifications and table options are stored by MySQL when the table is created. For more information, see Section 13.1.20.1, “CREATE TABLE Statement Retention”.

There are several aspects to the CREATE TABLE statement, described under the following topics in this section:

Table Name

  • tbl_name

    The table name can be specified as db_name.tbl_name to create the table in a specific database. This works regardless of whether there is a default database, assuming that the database exists. If you use quoted identifiers, quote the database and table names separately. For example, write `mydb`.`mytbl`, not `mydb.mytbl`.

    Rules for permissible table names are given in Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”.

  • IF NOT EXISTS

    Prevents an error from occurring if the table exists. However, there is no verification that the existing table has a structure identical to that indicated by the CREATE TABLE statement.

Temporary Tables

You can use the TEMPORARY keyword when creating a table. A TEMPORARY table is visible only within the current session, and is dropped automatically when the session is closed. For more information, see Section 13.1.20.3, “CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE Syntax”.

Table Cloning and Copying

Column Data Types and Attributes

There is a hard limit of 4096 columns per table, but the effective maximum may be less for a given table and depends on the factors discussed in Section 8.4.7, “Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size”.

  • data_type

    data_type represents the data type in a column definition. For a full description of the syntax available for specifying column data types, as well as information about the properties of each type, see Chapter 11, Data Types.

    • Some attributes do not apply to all data types. AUTO_INCREMENT applies only to integer and floating-point types. Prior to MySQL 8.0.13, DEFAULT does not apply to the BLOB, TEXT, GEOMETRY, and JSON types.

    • Character data types (CHAR, VARCHAR, the TEXT types, ENUM, SET, and any synonyms) synonyms) can include CHARACTER SET to specify the character set for the column. CHARSET is a synonym for CHARACTER SET. A collation for the character set can be specified with the COLLATE attribute, along with any other attributes. For details, see Chapter 10, Character Sets, Collations, Unicode. Example:

      CREATE TABLE t (c CHAR(20) CHARACTER SET utf8 COLLATE utf8_bin);
      

      MySQL 8.0 interprets length specifications in character column definitions in characters. Lengths for BINARY and VARBINARY are in bytes.

    • For CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, and VARBINARY columns, indexes can be created that use only the leading part of column values, using col_name(length) syntax to specify an index prefix length. BLOB and TEXT columns also can be indexed, but a prefix length must be given. Prefix lengths are given in characters for nonbinary string types and in bytes for binary string types. That is, index entries consist of the first length characters of each column value for CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns, and the first length bytes of each column value for BINARY, VARBINARY, and BLOB columns. Indexing only a prefix of column values like this can make the index file much smaller. For additional information about index prefixes, see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”.

      Only the InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines support indexing on BLOB and TEXT columns. For example:

      CREATE TABLE test (blob_col BLOB, INDEX(blob_col(10)));
      

      If a specified index prefix exceeds the maximum column data type size, CREATE TABLE handles the index as follows:

      • For a nonunique index, either an error occurs (if strict SQL mode is enabled), or the index length is reduced to lie within the maximum column data type size and a warning is produced (if strict SQL mode is not enabled).

      • For a unique index, an error occurs regardless of SQL mode because reducing the index length might enable insertion of nonunique entries that do not meet the specified uniqueness requirement.

    • JSON columns cannot be indexed. You can work around this restriction by creating an index on a generated column that extracts a scalar value from the JSON column. See Indexing a Generated Column to Provide a JSON Column Index, for a detailed example.

  • NOT NULL | NULL

    If neither NULL nor NOT NULL is specified, the column is treated as though NULL had been specified.

    In MySQL 8.0, only the InnoDB, MyISAM, and MEMORY storage engines support indexes on columns that can have NULL values. In other cases, you must declare indexed columns as NOT NULL or an error results.

  • DEFAULT

    Specifies a default value for a column. For more information about default value handling, including the case that a column definition includes no explicit DEFAULT value, see Section 11.7, “Data Type Default Values”.

    If the NO_ZERO_DATE or NO_ZERO_IN_DATE SQL mode is enabled and a date-valued default is not correct according to that mode, CREATE TABLE produces a warning if strict SQL mode is not enabled and an error if strict mode is enabled. For example, with NO_ZERO_IN_DATE enabled, c1 DATE DEFAULT '2010-00-00' produces a warning.

  • AUTO_INCREMENT

    An integer or floating-point column can have the additional attribute AUTO_INCREMENT. When you insert a value of NULL (recommended) or 0 into an indexed AUTO_INCREMENT column, the column is set to the next sequence value. Typically this is value+1, where value is the largest value for the column currently in the table. AUTO_INCREMENT sequences begin with 1.

    To retrieve an AUTO_INCREMENT value after inserting a row, use the LAST_INSERT_ID() SQL function or the mysql_insert_id() C API function. See Section 12.15, “Information Functions”, and Section 28.7.7.38, “mysql_insert_id()”.

    If the NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO SQL mode is enabled, you can store 0 in AUTO_INCREMENT columns as 0 without generating a new sequence value. See Section 5.1.11, “Server SQL Modes”.

    There can be only one AUTO_INCREMENT column per table, it must be indexed, and it cannot have a DEFAULT value. An AUTO_INCREMENT column works properly only if it contains only positive values. Inserting a negative number is regarded as inserting a very large positive number. This is done to avoid precision problems when numbers wrap over from positive to negative and also to ensure that you do not accidentally get an AUTO_INCREMENT column that contains 0.

    For MyISAM tables, you can specify an AUTO_INCREMENT secondary column in a multiple-column key. See Section 3.6.9, “Using AUTO_INCREMENT”.

    To make MySQL compatible with some ODBC applications, you can find the AUTO_INCREMENT value for the last inserted row with the following query:

    SELECT * FROM tbl_name WHERE auto_col IS NULL
    

    This method requires that sql_auto_is_null variable is not set to 0. See Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”.

    For information about InnoDB and AUTO_INCREMENT, see Section 15.6.1.4, “AUTO_INCREMENT Handling in InnoDB”. For information about AUTO_INCREMENT and MySQL Replication, see Section 17.5.1.1, “Replication and AUTO_INCREMENT”.

  • COMMENT

    A comment for a column can be specified with the COMMENT option, up to 1024 characters long. The comment is displayed by the SHOW CREATE TABLE and SHOW FULL COLUMNS statements.

  • COLUMN_FORMAT

    In NDB Cluster, it is also possible to specify a data storage format for individual columns of NDB tables using COLUMN_FORMAT. Permissible column formats are FIXED, DYNAMIC, and DEFAULT. FIXED is used to specify fixed-width storage, DYNAMIC permits the column to be variable-width, and DEFAULT causes the column to use fixed-width or variable-width storage as determined by the column's data type (possibly overridden by a ROW_FORMAT specifier).

    For NDB tables, the default value for COLUMN_FORMAT is FIXED.

    In NDB Cluster, the maximum possible offset for a column defined with COLUMN_FORMAT=FIXED is 8188 bytes. For more information and possible workarounds, see Section 22.1.7.5, “Limits Associated with Database Objects in NDB Cluster”.

    COLUMN_FORMAT currently has no effect on columns of tables using storage engines other than NDB. MySQL 8.0 silently ignores COLUMN_FORMAT.

  • STORAGE

    For NDB tables, it is possible to specify whether the column is stored on disk or in memory by using a STORAGE clause. STORAGE DISK causes the column to be stored on disk, and STORAGE MEMORY causes in-memory storage to be used. The CREATE TABLE statement used must still include a TABLESPACE clause:

    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
        ->     c1 INT STORAGE DISK,
        ->     c2 INT STORAGE MEMORY
        -> ) ENGINE NDB;
    ERROR 1005 (HY000): Can't create table 'c.t1' (errno: 140)
    
    mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
        ->     c1 INT STORAGE DISK,
        ->     c2 INT STORAGE MEMORY
        -> ) TABLESPACE ts_1 ENGINE NDB;
    Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.06 sec)
    

    For NDB tables, STORAGE DEFAULT is equivalent to STORAGE MEMORY.

    The STORAGE clause has no effect on tables using storage engines other than NDB. The STORAGE keyword is supported only in the build of mysqld that is supplied with NDB Cluster; it is not recognized in any other version of MySQL, where any attempt to use the STORAGE keyword causes a syntax error.

  • GENERATED ALWAYS

    Used to specify a generated column expression. For information about generated columns, see Section 13.1.20.9, “CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns”.

    Stored generated columns can be indexed. InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual generated columns. See Section 13.1.20.10, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

Indexes, Foreign Keys, and CHECK Constraints

Several keywords apply to creation of indexes, foreign keys, and CHECK constraints. For general background in addition to the following descriptions, see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”, Section 13.1.20.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”, and Section 13.1.20.7, “CHECK Constraints”.

  • CONSTRAINT symbol

    The CONSTRAINT symbol clause may be given to name a constraint. If the clause is not given, or a symbol is not included following the CONSTRAINT keyword, MySQL automatically generates a constraint name, with the exception noted below. The symbol value, if used, must be unique per schema (database), per constraint type. A duplicate symbol results in an error.

    Note

    If the CONSTRAINT symbol clause is not given in a foreign key definition, or a symbol is not included following the CONSTRAINT keyword, MySQL uses the foreign key index name up to MySQL 8.0.15, and automatically generates a constraint name thereafter.

    The SQL standard specifies that all types of constraints (primary key, unique index, foreign key, check) belong to the same namespace. In MySQL, each constraint type has its own namespace per schema. Consequently, names for each type of constraint must be unique per schema.

  • PRIMARY KEY

    A unique index where all key columns must be defined as NOT NULL. If they are not explicitly declared as NOT NULL, MySQL declares them so implicitly (and silently). A table can have only one PRIMARY KEY. The name of a PRIMARY KEY is always PRIMARY, which thus cannot be used as the name for any other kind of index.

    If you do not have a PRIMARY KEY and an application asks for the PRIMARY KEY in your tables, MySQL returns the first UNIQUE index that has no NULL columns as the PRIMARY KEY.

    In InnoDB tables, keep the PRIMARY KEY short to minimize storage overhead for secondary indexes. Each secondary index entry contains a copy of the primary key columns for the corresponding row. (See Section 15.6.2.1, “Clustered and Secondary Indexes”.)

    In the created table, a PRIMARY KEY is placed first, followed by all UNIQUE indexes, and then the nonunique indexes. This helps the MySQL optimizer to prioritize which index to use and also more quickly to detect duplicated UNIQUE keys.

    A PRIMARY KEY can be a multiple-column index. However, you cannot create a multiple-column index using the PRIMARY KEY key attribute in a column specification. Doing so only marks that single column as primary. You must use a separate PRIMARY KEY(key_part, ...) clause.

    If a table has a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE NOT NULL index that consists of a single column that has an integer type, you can use _rowid to refer to the indexed column in SELECT statements, as described in Unique Indexes.

    In MySQL, the name of a PRIMARY KEY is PRIMARY. For other indexes, if you do not assign a name, the index is assigned the same name as the first indexed column, with an optional suffix (_2, _3, ...) to make it unique. You can see index names for a table using SHOW INDEX FROM tbl_name. See Section 13.7.7.22, “SHOW INDEX Syntax”.

  • KEY | INDEX

    KEY is normally a synonym for INDEX. The key attribute PRIMARY KEY can also be specified as just KEY when given in a column definition. This was implemented for compatibility with other database systems.

  • UNIQUE

    A UNIQUE index creates a constraint such that all values in the index must be distinct. An error occurs if you try to add a new row with a key value that matches an existing row. For all engines, a UNIQUE index permits multiple NULL values for columns that can contain NULL. If you specify a prefix value for a column in a UNIQUE index, the column values must be unique within the prefix length.

    If a table has a PRIMARY KEY or UNIQUE NOT NULL index that consists of a single column that has an integer type, you can use _rowid to refer to the indexed column in SELECT statements, as described in Unique Indexes.

  • FULLTEXT

    A FULLTEXT index is a special type of index used for full-text searches. Only the InnoDB and MyISAM storage engines support FULLTEXT indexes. They can be created only from CHAR, VARCHAR, and TEXT columns. Indexing always happens over the entire column; column prefix indexing is not supported and any prefix length is ignored if specified. See Section 12.9, “Full-Text Search Functions”, for details of operation. A WITH PARSER clause can be specified as an index_option value to associate a parser plugin with the index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. This clause is valid only for FULLTEXT indexes. InnoDB and MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. See Full-Text Parser Plugins and Section 29.2.4.4, “Writing Full-Text Parser Plugins” for more information.

  • SPATIAL

    You can create SPATIAL indexes on spatial data types. Spatial types are supported only for InnoDB and MyISAM tables, and indexed columns must be declared as NOT NULL. See Section 11.5, “Spatial Data Types”.

  • FOREIGN KEY

    MySQL supports foreign keys, which let you cross-reference related data across tables, and foreign key constraints, which help keep this spread-out data consistent. For definition and option information, see reference_definition, and reference_option.

    Partitioned tables employing the InnoDB storage engine do not support foreign keys. See Section 23.6, “Restrictions and Limitations on Partitioning”, for more information.

  • CHECK

    The CHECK clause enables the creation of constraints to be checked for data values in table rows. See Section 13.1.20.7, “CHECK Constraints”.

  • key_part

    • A key_part specification can end with ASC or DESC to specify whether index values are stored in ascending or descending order. The default is ascending if no order specifier is given.

    • Prefixes, defined by the length attribute, can be up to 767 bytes long for InnoDB tables that use the REDUNDANT or COMPACT row format. The prefix length limit is 3072 bytes for InnoDB tables that use the DYNAMIC or COMPRESSED row format. For MyISAM tables, the prefix length limit is 1000 bytes.

      Prefix limits are measured in bytes. However, prefix lengths for index specifications in CREATE TABLE, ALTER TABLE, and CREATE INDEX statements are interpreted as number of characters for nonbinary string types (CHAR, VARCHAR, TEXT) and number of bytes for binary string types (BINARY, VARBINARY, BLOB). Take this into account when specifying a prefix length for a nonbinary string column that uses a multibyte character set.

    • Beginning with MySQL 8.0.17, the expr for a key_part specification can take the form (CAST json_path AS type ARRAY) to create a multi-valued index on a JSON column. Multi-Valued Indexes, provides detailed information regarding creation of, usage of, and restrictions and limitations on multi-valued indexes.

  • index_type

    Some storage engines permit you to specify an index type when creating an index. The syntax for the index_type specifier is USING type_name.

    Example:

    CREATE TABLE lookup
      (id INT, INDEX USING BTREE (id))
      ENGINE = MEMORY;
    

    The preferred position for USING is after the index column list. It can be given before the column list, but support for use of the option in that position is deprecated and will be removed in a future MySQL release.

  • index_option

    index_option values specify additional options for an index.

    • KEY_BLOCK_SIZE

      For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for index key blocks. The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.

      For information about the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE attribute, see Table Options.

    • WITH PARSER

      The WITH PARSER option can only be used with FULLTEXT indexes. It associates a parser plugin with the index if full-text indexing and searching operations need special handling. InnoDB and MyISAM support full-text parser plugins. If you have a MyISAM table with an associated full-text parser plugin, you can convert the table to InnoDB using ALTER TABLE.

    • COMMENT

      In MySQL 8.0, index definitions can include an optional comment of up to 1024 characters.

      You can set the InnoDB MERGE_THRESHOLD value for an individual index using the index_option COMMENT clause. See Section 15.8.11, “Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages”.

    For more information about permissible index_option values, see Section 13.1.15, “CREATE INDEX Syntax”. For more information about indexes, see Section 8.3.1, “How MySQL Uses Indexes”.

  • reference_definition

    For reference_definition syntax details and examples, see Section 13.1.20.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. For information specific to foreign keys in InnoDB, see Section 15.6.1.5, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

    InnoDB and NDB tables support checking of foreign key constraints. The columns of the referenced table must always be explicitly named. Both ON DELETE and ON UPDATE actions on foreign keys are supported. For more detailed information and examples, see Section 13.1.20.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”. For information specific to foreign keys in InnoDB, see Section 15.6.1.5, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

    For other storage engines, MySQL Server parses and ignores the FOREIGN KEY and REFERENCES syntax in CREATE TABLE statements. See Section 1.8.2.3, “Foreign Key Differences”.

    Important

    For users familiar with the ANSI/ISO SQL Standard, please note that no storage engine, including InnoDB, recognizes or enforces the MATCH clause used in referential integrity constraint definitions. Use of an explicit MATCH clause will not have the specified effect, and also causes ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses to be ignored. For these reasons, specifying MATCH should be avoided.

    The MATCH clause in the SQL standard controls how NULL values in a composite (multiple-column) foreign key are handled when comparing to a primary key. InnoDB essentially implements the semantics defined by MATCH SIMPLE, which permit a foreign key to be all or partially NULL. In that case, the (child table) row containing such a foreign key is permitted to be inserted, and does not match any row in the referenced (parent) table. It is possible to implement other semantics using triggers.

    Additionally, MySQL requires that the referenced columns be indexed for performance. However, InnoDB does not enforce any requirement that the referenced columns be declared UNIQUE or NOT NULL. The handling of foreign key references to nonunique keys or keys that contain NULL values is not well defined for operations such as UPDATE or DELETE CASCADE. You are advised to use foreign keys that reference only keys that are both UNIQUE (or PRIMARY) and NOT NULL.

    MySQL parses but ignores inline REFERENCES specifications (as defined in the SQL standard) where the references are defined as part of the column specification. MySQL accepts REFERENCES clauses only when specified as part of a separate FOREIGN KEY specification.

  • reference_option

    For information about the RESTRICT, CASCADE, SET NULL, NO ACTION, and SET DEFAULT options, see Section 13.1.20.6, “Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

Table Options

Table options are used to optimize the behavior of the table. In most cases, you do not have to specify any of them. These options apply to all storage engines unless otherwise indicated. Options that do not apply to a given storage engine may be accepted and remembered as part of the table definition. Such options then apply if you later use ALTER TABLE to convert the table to use a different storage engine.

  • ENGINE

    Specifies the storage engine for the table, using one of the names shown in the following table. The engine name can be unquoted or quoted. The quoted name 'DEFAULT' is recognized but ignored.

    Storage Engine Description
    InnoDB Transaction-safe tables with row locking and foreign keys. The default storage engine for new tables. See Chapter 15, The InnoDB Storage Engine, and in particular Section 15.1, “Introduction to InnoDB” if you have MySQL experience but are new to InnoDB.
    MyISAM The binary portable storage engine that is primarily used for read-only or read-mostly workloads. See Section 16.2, “The MyISAM Storage Engine”.
    MEMORY The data for this storage engine is stored only in memory. See Section 16.3, “The MEMORY Storage Engine”.
    CSV Tables that store rows in comma-separated values format. See Section 16.4, “The CSV Storage Engine”.
    ARCHIVE The archiving storage engine. See Section 16.5, “The ARCHIVE Storage Engine”.
    EXAMPLE An example engine. See Section 16.9, “The EXAMPLE Storage Engine”.
    FEDERATED Storage engine that accesses remote tables. See Section 16.8, “The FEDERATED Storage Engine”.
    HEAP This is a synonym for MEMORY.
    MERGE A collection of MyISAM tables used as one table. Also known as MRG_MyISAM. See Section 16.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”.
    NDB Clustered, fault-tolerant, memory-based tables, supporting transactions and foreign keys. Also known as NDBCLUSTER. See Chapter 22, MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0.

    By default, if a storage engine is specified that is not available, the statement fails with an error. You can override this behavior by removing NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION from the server SQL mode (see Section 5.1.11, “Server SQL Modes”) so that MySQL allows substitution of the specified engine with the default storage engine instead. Normally in such cases, this is InnoDB, which is the default value for the default_storage_engine system variable. When NO_ENGINE_SUBSTITUTION is disabled, a warning occurs if the storage engine specification is not honored.

  • AUTO_INCREMENT

    The initial AUTO_INCREMENT value for the table. In MySQL 8.0, this works for MyISAM, MEMORY, InnoDB, and ARCHIVE tables. To set the first auto-increment value for engines that do not support the AUTO_INCREMENT table option, insert a dummy row with a value one less than the desired value after creating the table, and then delete the dummy row.

    For engines that support the AUTO_INCREMENT table option in CREATE TABLE statements, you can also use ALTER TABLE tbl_name AUTO_INCREMENT = N to reset the AUTO_INCREMENT value. The value cannot be set lower than the maximum value currently in the column.

  • AVG_ROW_LENGTH

    An approximation of the average row length for your table. You need to set this only for large tables with variable-size rows.

    When you create a MyISAM table, MySQL uses the product of the MAX_ROWS and AVG_ROW_LENGTH options to decide how big the resulting table is. If you don't specify either option, the maximum size for MyISAM data and index files is 256TB by default. (If your operating system does not support files that large, table sizes are constrained by the file size limit.) If you want to keep down the pointer sizes to make the index smaller and faster and you don't really need big files, you can decrease the default pointer size by setting the myisam_data_pointer_size system variable. (See Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”.) If you want all your tables to be able to grow above the default limit and are willing to have your tables slightly slower and larger than necessary, you can increase the default pointer size by setting this variable. Setting the value to 7 permits table sizes up to 65,536TB.

  • [DEFAULT] CHARACTER SET

    Specifies a default character set for the table. CHARSET is a synonym for CHARACTER SET. If the character set name is DEFAULT, the database character set is used.

  • CHECKSUM

    Set this to 1 if you want MySQL to maintain a live checksum for all rows (that is, a checksum that MySQL updates automatically as the table changes). This makes the table a little slower to update, but also makes it easier to find corrupted tables. The CHECKSUM TABLE statement reports the checksum. (MyISAM only.)

  • [DEFAULT] COLLATE

    Specifies a default collation for the table.

  • COMMENT

    A comment for the table, up to 2048 characters long.

    You can set the InnoDB MERGE_THRESHOLD value for a table using the table_option COMMENT clause. See Section 15.8.11, “Configuring the Merge Threshold for Index Pages”.

    Setting NDB_TABLE options.  The table comment in a CREATE TABLE that creates an NDB table or an ALTER TABLE statement which alters one can also be used to specify one to four of the NDB_TABLE options NOLOGGING, READ_BACKUP, PARTITION_BALANCE, or FULLY_REPLICATED as a set of name-value pairs, separated by commas if need be, immediately following the string NDB_TABLE= that begins the quoted comment text. An example statement using this syntax is shown here (emphasized text):

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        c1 INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
        c2 VARCHAR(100),
        c3 VARCHAR(100) )
    ENGINE=NDB
    COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE";
    

    Spaces are not permitted within the quoted string. The string is case-insensitive.

    The comment is displayed as part of the ouput of SHOW CREATE TABLE. The text of the comment is also available as the TABLE_COMMENT column of the MySQL Information Schema TABLES table.

    This comment syntax is also supported with ALTER TABLE statements for NDB tables. Keep in mind that a table comment used with ALTER TABLE replaces any existing comment which the table might have had perviously.

    Setting the MERGE_THRESHOLD option in table comments is not supported for NDB tables (it is ignored).

    For complete syntax information and examples, see Section 13.1.20.11, “Setting NDB_TABLE Options”.

  • COMPRESSION

    The compression algorithm used for page level compression for InnoDB tables. Supported values include Zlib, LZ4, and None. The COMPRESSION attribute was introduced with the transparent page compression feature. Page compression is only supported with InnoDB tables that reside in file-per-table tablespaces, and is only available on Linux and Windows platforms that support sparse files and hole punching. For more information, see Section 15.9.2, “InnoDB Page Compression”.

  • CONNECTION

    The connection string for a FEDERATED table.

    Note

    Older versions of MySQL used a COMMENT option for the connection string.

  • DATA DIRECTORY, INDEX DIRECTORY

    For InnoDB, the DATA DIRECTORY='directory' clause permits creating a file-per-table tablespace outside of the data directory. The tablespace data file is created in the specified directory, inside a subdirectory with the same name as the schema. The innodb_file_per_table variable must be enabled to use the DATA DIRECTORY clause. The full directory path must be specified. For more information, see Section 15.6.3.6, “Creating a Tablespace Outside of the Data Directory”.

    When creating MyISAM tables, you can use the DATA DIRECTORY='directory' clause, the INDEX DIRECTORY='directory' clause, or both. They specify where to put a MyISAM table's data file and index file, respectively. Unlike InnoDB tables, MySQL does not create subdirectories that correspond to the database name when creating a MyISAM table with a DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY option. Files are created in the directory that is specified.

    You must have the FILE privilege to use the DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY table option.

    Important

    Table-level DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are ignored for partitioned tables. (Bug #32091)

    These options work only when you are not using the --skip-symbolic-links option. Your operating system must also have a working, thread-safe realpath() call. See Section 8.12.2.2, “Using Symbolic Links for MyISAM Tables on Unix”, for more complete information.

    If a MyISAM table is created with no DATA DIRECTORY option, the .MYD file is created in the database directory. By default, if MyISAM finds an existing .MYD file in this case, it overwrites it. The same applies to .MYI files for tables created with no INDEX DIRECTORY option. To suppress this behavior, start the server with the --keep_files_on_create option, in which case MyISAM will not overwrite existing files and returns an error instead.

    If a MyISAM table is created with a DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY option and an existing .MYD or .MYI file is found, MyISAM always returns an error. It will not overwrite a file in the specified directory.

    Important

    You cannot use path names that contain the MySQL data directory with DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY. This includes partitioned tables and individual table partitions. (See Bug #32167.)

  • DELAY_KEY_WRITE

    Set this to 1 if you want to delay key updates for the table until the table is closed. See the description of the delay_key_write system variable in Section 5.1.8, “Server System Variables”. (MyISAM only.)

  • ENCRYPTION

    The ENCRYPTION clause enables or disables page-level data encryption for an InnoDB table. A keyring plugin must be installed and configured before encryption can be enabled. Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, the ENCRYPTION clause can only be specified when creating a table in an a file-per-table tablespace. As of MySQL 8.0.16, the ENCRYPTION clause can also be specified when creating a table in a general tablespace.

    As of MySQL 8.0.16, a table inherits the default schema encryption if an ENCRYPTION clause is not specified. If the table_encryption_privilege_check variable is enabled, the TABLE_ENCRYPTION_ADMIN privilege is required to create a table with an ENCRYPTION clause setting that differs from the default schema encryption. When creating a table in a general tablespace, table and tablespace encryption must match.

    As of MySQL 8.0.16, specifying an ENCRYPTION clause with a value other than 'N' or '' is not permitted when using a storage engine that does not support encryption. Previously, the clause was accepted.

    For more information, see Section 15.6.3.9, “InnoDB Data-at-Rest Encryption”.

  • INSERT_METHOD

    If you want to insert data into a MERGE table, you must specify with INSERT_METHOD the table into which the row should be inserted. INSERT_METHOD is an option useful for MERGE tables only. Use a value of FIRST or LAST to have inserts go to the first or last table, or a value of NO to prevent inserts. See Section 16.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”.

  • KEY_BLOCK_SIZE

    For MyISAM tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE optionally specifies the size in bytes to use for index key blocks. The value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used if necessary. A KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value specified for an individual index definition overrides the table-level KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value.

    For InnoDB tables, KEY_BLOCK_SIZE specifies the page size in kilobytes to use for compressed InnoDB tables. The KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value is treated as a hint; a different size could be used by InnoDB if necessary. KEY_BLOCK_SIZE can only be less than or equal to the innodb_page_size value. A value of 0 represents the default compressed page size, which is half of the innodb_page_size value. Depending on innodb_page_size, possible KEY_BLOCK_SIZE values include 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16. See Section 15.9.1, “InnoDB Table Compression” for more information.

    Oracle recommends enabling innodb_strict_mode when specifying KEY_BLOCK_SIZE for InnoDB tables. When innodb_strict_mode is enabled, specifying an invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value returns an error. If innodb_strict_mode is disabled, an invalid KEY_BLOCK_SIZE value results in a warning, and the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE option is ignored.

    The Create_options column in response to SHOW TABLE STATUS reports the actual KEY_BLOCK_SIZE used by the table, as does SHOW CREATE TABLE.

    InnoDB only supports KEY_BLOCK_SIZE at the table level.

    KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is not supported with 32KB and 64KB innodb_page_size values. InnoDB table compression does not support these pages sizes.

    InnoDB does not support the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE option when creating temporary tables.

  • MAX_ROWS

    The maximum number of rows you plan to store in the table. This is not a hard limit, but rather a hint to the storage engine that the table must be able to store at least this many rows.

    Important

    The use of MAX_ROWS with NDB tables to control the number of table partitions is deprecated. It remains supported in later versions for backward compatibility, but is subject to removal in a future release. Use PARTITION_BALANCE instead; see Setting NDB_TABLE options.

    The NDB storage engine treats this value as a maximum. If you plan to create very large NDB Cluster tables (containing millions of rows), you should use this option to insure that NDB allocates sufficient number of index slots in the hash table used for storing hashes of the table's primary keys by setting MAX_ROWS = 2 * rows, where rows is the number of rows that you expect to insert into the table.

    The maximum MAX_ROWS value is 4294967295; larger values are truncated to this limit.

  • MIN_ROWS

    The minimum number of rows you plan to store in the table. The MEMORY storage engine uses this option as a hint about memory use.

  • PACK_KEYS

    Takes effect only with MyISAM tables. Set this option to 1 if you want to have smaller indexes. This usually makes updates slower and reads faster. Setting the option to 0 disables all packing of keys. Setting it to DEFAULT tells the storage engine to pack only long CHAR, VARCHAR, BINARY, or VARBINARY columns.

    If you do not use PACK_KEYS, the default is to pack strings, but not numbers. If you use PACK_KEYS=1, numbers are packed as well.

    When packing binary number keys, MySQL uses prefix compression:

    • Every key needs one extra byte to indicate how many bytes of the previous key are the same for the next key.

    • The pointer to the row is stored in high-byte-first order directly after the key, to improve compression.

    This means that if you have many equal keys on two consecutive rows, all following same keys usually only take two bytes (including the pointer to the row). Compare this to the ordinary case where the following keys takes storage_size_for_key + pointer_size (where the pointer size is usually 4). Conversely, you get a significant benefit from prefix compression only if you have many numbers that are the same. If all keys are totally different, you use one byte more per key, if the key is not a key that can have NULL values. (In this case, the packed key length is stored in the same byte that is used to mark if a key is NULL.)

  • PASSWORD

    This option is unused.

  • ROW_FORMAT

    Defines the physical format in which the rows are stored.

    When executing a CREATE TABLE statement with strict mode disabled, if you specify a row format that is not supported by the storage engine that is used for the table, the table is created using that storage engine's default row format. The actual row format of the table is reported in the Row_format and Create_options columns in response to SHOW TABLE STATUS. SHOW CREATE TABLE also reports the actual row format of the table.

    Row format choices differ depending on the storage engine used for the table.

    For InnoDB tables:

    • The default row format is defined by innodb_default_row_format, which has a default setting of DYNAMIC. The default row format is used when the ROW_FORMAT option is not defined or when ROW_FORMAT=DEFAULT is used.

      If the ROW_FORMAT option is not defined, or if ROW_FORMAT=DEFAULT is used, operations that rebuild a table also silently change the row format of the table to the default defined by innodb_default_row_format. For more information, see Defining the Row Format of a Table.

    • For more efficient InnoDB storage of data types, especially BLOB types, use the DYNAMIC. See DYNAMIC Row Format for requirements associated with the DYNAMIC row format.

    • To enable compression for InnoDB tables, specify ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED. The ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED option is not supported when creating temporary tables. See Section 15.9, “InnoDB Table and Page Compression” for requirements associated with the COMPRESSED row format.

    • The row format used in older versions of MySQL can still be requested by specifying the REDUNDANT row format.

    • When you specify a non-default ROW_FORMAT clause, consider also enabling the innodb_strict_mode configuration option.

    • ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is not supported. If ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is specified while innodb_strict_mode is disabled, InnoDB issues a warning and assumes ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC. If ROW_FORMAT=FIXED is specified while innodb_strict_mode is enabled, which is the default, InnoDB returns an error.

    • For additional information about InnoDB row formats, see Section 15.10, “InnoDB Row Formats”.

    For MyISAM tables, the option value can be FIXED or DYNAMIC for static or variable-length row format. myisampack sets the type to COMPRESSED. See Section 16.2.3, “MyISAM Table Storage Formats”.

    For NDB tables, the default ROW_FORMAT is DYNAMIC.

  • STATS_AUTO_RECALC

    Specifies whether to automatically recalculate persistent statistics for an InnoDB table. The value DEFAULT causes the persistent statistics setting for the table to be determined by the innodb_stats_auto_recalc configuration option. The value 1 causes statistics to be recalculated when 10% of the data in the table has changed. The value 0 prevents automatic recalculation for this table; with this setting, issue an ANALYZE TABLE statement to recalculate the statistics after making substantial changes to the table. For more information about the persistent statistics feature, see Section 15.8.10.1, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”.

  • STATS_PERSISTENT

    Specifies whether to enable persistent statistics for an InnoDB table. The value DEFAULT causes the persistent statistics setting for the table to be determined by the innodb_stats_persistent configuration option. The value 1 enables persistent statistics for the table, while the value 0 turns off this feature. After enabling persistent statistics through a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement, issue an ANALYZE TABLE statement to calculate the statistics, after loading representative data into the table. For more information about the persistent statistics feature, see Section 15.8.10.1, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”.

  • STATS_SAMPLE_PAGES

    The number of index pages to sample when estimating cardinality and other statistics for an indexed column, such as those calculated by ANALYZE TABLE. For more information, see Section 15.8.10.1, “Configuring Persistent Optimizer Statistics Parameters”.

  • TABLESPACE

    The TABLESPACE clause can be used to create a table in an existing general tablespace, a file-per-table tablespace, or the system tablespace.

    CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name

    The general tablespace that you specify must exist prior to using the TABLESPACE clause. For information about general tablespaces, see Section 15.6.3.3, “General Tablespaces”.

    The tablespace_name is a case-sensitive identifier. It may be quoted or unquoted. The forward slash character (/) is not permitted. Names beginning with innodb_ are reserved for special use.

    To create a table in the system tablespace, specify innodb_system as the tablespace name.

    CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system

    Using TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system, you can place a table of any uncompressed row format in the system tablespace regardless of the innodb_file_per_table setting. For example, you can add a table with ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC to the system tablespace using TABLESPACE [=] innodb_system.

    To create a table in a file-per-table tablespace, specify innodb_file_per_table as the tablespace name.

    CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] innodb_file_per_table
    Note

    If innodb_file_per_table is enabled, you need not specify TABLESPACE=innodb_file_per_table to create an InnoDB file-per-table tablespace. InnoDB tables are created in file-per-table tablespaces by default when innodb_file_per_table is enabled.

    The DATA DIRECTORY clause is permitted with CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE=innodb_file_per_table but is otherwise not supported for use in combination with the TABLESPACE clause.

    Note

    Support for TABLESPACE = innodb_file_per_table and TABLESPACE = innodb_temporary clauses with CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE is deprecated as of MySQL 8.0.13 and will be removed in a future version of MySQL.

    The STORAGE table option is employed only with NDB tables. STORAGE determines the type of storage used (disk or memory), and can be either DISK or MEMORY.

    TABLESPACE ... STORAGE DISK assigns a table to an NDB Cluster Disk Data tablespace. The tablespace must already have been created using CREATE TABLESPACE. See Section 22.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”, for more information.

    Important

    A STORAGE clause cannot be used in a CREATE TABLE statement without a TABLESPACE clause.

  • UNION

    Used to access a collection of identical MyISAM tables as one. This works only with MERGE tables. See Section 16.7, “The MERGE Storage Engine”.

    You must have SELECT, UPDATE, and DELETE privileges for the tables you map to a MERGE table.

    Note

    Formerly, all tables used had to be in the same database as the MERGE table itself. This restriction no longer applies.

Table Partitioning

partition_options can be used to control partitioning of the table created with CREATE TABLE.

Not all options shown in the syntax for partition_options at the beginning of this section are available for all partitioning types. Please see the listings for the following individual types for information specific to each type, and see Chapter 23, Partitioning, for more complete information about the workings of and uses for partitioning in MySQL, as well as additional examples of table creation and other statements relating to MySQL partitioning.

Partitions can be modified, merged, added to tables, and dropped from tables. For basic information about the MySQL statements to accomplish these tasks, see Section 13.1.9, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”. For more detailed descriptions and examples, see Section 23.3, “Partition Management”.

  • PARTITION BY

    If used, a partition_options clause begins with PARTITION BY. This clause contains the function that is used to determine the partition; the function returns an integer value ranging from 1 to num, where num is the number of partitions. (The maximum number of user-defined partitions which a table may contain is 1024; the number of subpartitions—discussed later in this section—is included in this maximum.)

    Note

    The expression (expr) used in a PARTITION BY clause cannot refer to any columns not in the table being created; such references are specifically not permitted and cause the statement to fail with an error. (Bug #29444)

  • HASH(expr)

    Hashes one or more columns to create a key for placing and locating rows. expr is an expression using one or more table columns. This can be any valid MySQL expression (including MySQL functions) that yields a single integer value. For example, these are both valid CREATE TABLE statements using PARTITION BY HASH:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5))
        PARTITION BY HASH(col1);
    
    CREATE TABLE t1 (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5), col3 DATETIME)
        PARTITION BY HASH ( YEAR(col3) );
    

    You may not use either VALUES LESS THAN or VALUES IN clauses with PARTITION BY HASH.

    PARTITION BY HASH uses the remainder of expr divided by the number of partitions (that is, the modulus). For examples and additional information, see Section 23.2.4, “HASH Partitioning”.

    The LINEAR keyword entails a somewhat different algorithm. In this case, the number of the partition in which a row is stored is calculated as the result of one or more logical AND operations. For discussion and examples of linear hashing, see Section 23.2.4.1, “LINEAR HASH Partitioning”.

  • KEY(column_list)

    This is similar to HASH, except that MySQL supplies the hashing function so as to guarantee an even data distribution. The column_list argument is simply a list of 1 or more table columns (maximum: 16). This example shows a simple table partitioned by key, with 4 partitions:

    CREATE TABLE tk (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5), col3 DATE)
        PARTITION BY KEY(col3)
        PARTITIONS 4;
    

    For tables that are partitioned by key, you can employ linear partitioning by using the LINEAR keyword. This has the same effect as with tables that are partitioned by HASH. That is, the partition number is found using the & operator rather than the modulus (see Section 23.2.4.1, “LINEAR HASH Partitioning”, and Section 23.2.5, “KEY Partitioning”, for details). This example uses linear partitioning by key to distribute data between 5 partitions:

    CREATE TABLE tk (col1 INT, col2 CHAR(5), col3 DATE)
        PARTITION BY LINEAR KEY(col3)
        PARTITIONS 5;
    

    The ALGORITHM={1|2} option is supported with [SUB]PARTITION BY [LINEAR] KEY. ALGORITHM=1 causes the server to use the same key-hashing functions as MySQL 5.1; ALGORITHM=2 means that the server employs the key-hashing functions implemented and used by default for new KEY partitioned tables in MySQL 5.5 and later. (Partitioned tables created with the key-hashing functions employed in MySQL 5.5 and later cannot be used by a MySQL 5.1 server.) Not specifying the option has the same effect as using ALGORITHM=2. This option is intended for use chiefly when upgrading or downgrading [LINEAR] KEY partitioned tables between MySQL 5.1 and later MySQL versions, or for creating tables partitioned by KEY or LINEAR KEY on a MySQL 5.5 or later server which can be used on a MySQL 5.1 server. For more information, see Section 13.1.9.1, “ALTER TABLE Partition Operations”.

    mysqldump in MySQL 5.7 (and later) writes this option encased in versioned comments, like this:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (a INT)
    /*!50100 PARTITION BY KEY */ /*!50611 ALGORITHM = 1 */ /*!50100 ()
          PARTITIONS 3 */
    

    This causes MySQL 5.6.10 and earlier servers to ignore the option, which would otherwise cause a syntax error in those versions. If you plan to load a dump made on a MySQL 5.7 server where you use tables that are partitioned or subpartitioned by KEY into a MySQL 5.6 server previous to version 5.6.11, be sure to consult Changes in MySQL 5.6, before proceeding. (The information found there also applies if you are loading a dump containing KEY partitioned or subpartitioned tables made from a MySQL 5.7—actually 5.6.11 or later—server into a MySQL 5.5.30 or earlier server.)

    Also in MySQL 5.6.11 and later, ALGORITHM=1 is shown when necessary in the output of SHOW CREATE TABLE using versioned comments in the same manner as mysqldump. ALGORITHM=2 is always omitted from SHOW CREATE TABLE output, even if this option was specified when creating the original table.

    You may not use either VALUES LESS THAN or VALUES IN clauses with PARTITION BY KEY.

  • RANGE(expr)

    In this case, expr shows a range of values using a set of VALUES LESS THAN operators. When using range partitioning, you must define at least one partition using VALUES LESS THAN. You cannot use VALUES IN with range partitioning.

    Note

    For tables partitioned by RANGE, VALUES LESS THAN must be used with either an integer literal value or an expression that evaluates to a single integer value. In MySQL 8.0, you can overcome this limitation in a table that is defined using PARTITION BY RANGE COLUMNS, as described later in this section.

    Suppose that you have a table that you wish to partition on a column containing year values, according to the following scheme.

    Partition Number: Years Range:
    0 1990 and earlier
    1 1991 to 1994
    2 1995 to 1998
    3 1999 to 2002
    4 2003 to 2005
    5 2006 and later

    A table implementing such a partitioning scheme can be realized by the CREATE TABLE statement shown here:

    CREATE TABLE t1 (
        year_col  INT,
        some_data INT
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE (year_col) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (1991),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (1995),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (1999),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (2002),
        PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (2006),
        PARTITION p5 VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE
    );
    

    PARTITION ... VALUES LESS THAN ... statements work in a consecutive fashion. VALUES LESS THAN MAXVALUE works to specify leftover values that are greater than the maximum value otherwise specified.

    VALUES LESS THAN clauses work sequentially in a manner similar to that of the case portions of a switch ... case block (as found in many programming languages such as C, Java, and PHP). That is, the clauses must be arranged in such a way that the upper limit specified in each successive VALUES LESS THAN is greater than that of the previous one, with the one referencing MAXVALUE coming last of all in the list.

  • RANGE COLUMNS(column_list)

    This variant on RANGE facilitates partition pruning for queries using range conditions on multiple columns (that is, having conditions such as WHERE a = 1 AND b < 10 or WHERE a = 1 AND b = 10 AND c < 10). It enables you to specify value ranges in multiple columns by using a list of columns in the COLUMNS clause and a set of column values in each PARTITION ... VALUES LESS THAN (value_list) partition definition clause. (In the simplest case, this set consists of a single column.) The maximum number of columns that can be referenced in the column_list and value_list is 16.

    The column_list used in the COLUMNS clause may contain only names of columns; each column in the list must be one of the following MySQL data types: the integer types; the string types; and time or date column types. Columns using BLOB, TEXT, SET, ENUM, BIT, or spatial data types are not permitted; columns that use floating-point number types are also not permitted. You also may not use functions or arithmetic expressions in the COLUMNS clause.

    The VALUES LESS THAN clause used in a partition definition must specify a literal value for each column that appears in the COLUMNS() clause; that is, the list of values used for each VALUES LESS THAN clause must contain the same number of values as there are columns listed in the COLUMNS clause. An attempt to use more or fewer values in a VALUES LESS THAN clause than there are in the COLUMNS clause causes the statement to fail with the error Inconsistency in usage of column lists for partitioning.... You cannot use NULL for any value appearing in VALUES LESS THAN. It is possible to use MAXVALUE more than once for a given column other than the first, as shown in this example:

    CREATE TABLE rc (
        a INT NOT NULL,
        b INT NOT NULL
    )
    PARTITION BY RANGE COLUMNS(a,b) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES LESS THAN (10,5),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES LESS THAN (20,10),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES LESS THAN (50,MAXVALUE),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES LESS THAN (65,MAXVALUE),
        PARTITION p4 VALUES LESS THAN (MAXVALUE,MAXVALUE)
    );
    

    Each value used in a VALUES LESS THAN value list must match the type of the corresponding column exactly; no conversion is made. For example, you cannot use the string '1' for a value that matches a column that uses an integer type (you must use the numeral 1 instead), nor can you use the numeral 1 for a value that matches a column that uses a string type (in such a case, you must use a quoted string: '1').

    For more information, see Section 23.2.1, “RANGE Partitioning”, and Section 23.4, “Partition Pruning”.

  • LIST(expr)

    This is useful when assigning partitions based on a table column with a restricted set of possible values, such as a state or country code. In such a case, all rows pertaining to a certain state or country can be assigned to a single partition, or a partition can be reserved for a certain set of states or countries. It is similar to RANGE, except that only VALUES IN may be used to specify permissible values for each partition.

    VALUES IN is used with a list of values to be matched. For instance, you could create a partitioning scheme such as the following:

    CREATE TABLE client_firms (
        id   INT,
        name VARCHAR(35)
    )
    PARTITION BY LIST (id) (
        PARTITION r0 VALUES IN (1, 5, 9, 13, 17, 21),
        PARTITION r1 VALUES IN (2, 6, 10, 14, 18, 22),
        PARTITION r2 VALUES IN (3, 7, 11, 15, 19, 23),
        PARTITION r3 VALUES IN (4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24)
    );
    

    When using list partitioning, you must define at least one partition using VALUES IN. You cannot use VALUES LESS THAN with PARTITION BY LIST.

    Note

    For tables partitioned by LIST, the value list used with VALUES IN must consist of integer values only. In MySQL 8.0, you can overcome this limitation using partitioning by LIST COLUMNS, which is described later in this section.

  • LIST COLUMNS(column_list)

    This variant on LIST facilitates partition pruning for queries using comparison conditions on multiple columns (that is, having conditions such as WHERE a = 5 AND b = 5 or WHERE a = 1 AND b = 10 AND c = 5). It enables you to specify values in multiple columns by using a list of columns in the COLUMNS clause and a set of column values in each PARTITION ... VALUES IN (value_list) partition definition clause.

    The rules governing regarding data types for the column list used in LIST COLUMNS(column_list) and the value list used in VALUES IN(value_list) are the same as those for the column list used in RANGE COLUMNS(column_list) and the value list used in VALUES LESS THAN(value_list), respectively, except that in the VALUES IN clause, MAXVALUE is not permitted, and you may use NULL.

    There is one important difference between the list of values used for VALUES IN with PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS as opposed to when it is used with PARTITION BY LIST. When used with PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS, each element in the VALUES IN clause must be a set of column values; the number of values in each set must be the same as the number of columns used in the COLUMNS clause, and the data types of these values must match those of the columns (and occur in the same order). In the simplest case, the set consists of a single column. The maximum number of columns that can be used in the column_list and in the elements making up the value_list is 16.

    The table defined by the following CREATE TABLE statement provides an example of a table using LIST COLUMNS partitioning:

    CREATE TABLE lc (
        a INT NULL,
        b INT NULL
    )
    PARTITION BY LIST COLUMNS(a,b) (
        PARTITION p0 VALUES IN( (0,0), (NULL,NULL) ),
        PARTITION p1 VALUES IN( (0,1), (0,2), (0,3), (1,1), (1,2) ),
        PARTITION p2 VALUES IN( (1,0), (2,0), (2,1), (3,0), (3,1) ),
        PARTITION p3 VALUES IN( (1,3), (2,2), (2,3), (3,2), (3,3) )
    );
    
  • PARTITIONS num

    The number of partitions may optionally be specified with a PARTITIONS num clause, where num is the number of partitions. If both this clause and any PARTITION clauses are used, num must be equal to the total number of any partitions that are declared using PARTITION clauses.

    Note

    Whether or not you use a PARTITIONS clause in creating a table that is partitioned by RANGE or LIST, you must still include at least one PARTITION VALUES clause in the table definition (see below).

  • SUBPARTITION BY

    A partition may optionally be divided into a number of subpartitions. This can be indicated by using the optional SUBPARTITION BY clause. Subpartitioning may be done by HASH or KEY. Either of these may be LINEAR. These work in the same way as previously described for the equivalent partitioning types. (It is not possible to subpartition by LIST or RANGE.)

    The number of subpartitions can be indicated using the SUBPARTITIONS keyword followed by an integer value.

  • Rigorous checking of the value used in PARTITIONS or SUBPARTITIONS clauses is applied and this value must adhere to the following rules:

    • The value must be a positive, nonzero integer.

    • No leading zeros are permitted.

    • The value must be an integer literal, and cannot not be an expression. For example, PARTITIONS 0.2E+01 is not permitted, even though 0.2E+01 evaluates to 2. (Bug #15890)

  • partition_definition

    Each partition may be individually defined using a partition_definition clause. The individual parts making up this clause are as follows:

    • PARTITION partition_name

      Specifies a logical name for the partition.

    • VALUES

      For range partitioning, each partition must include a VALUES LESS THAN clause; for list partitioning, you must specify a VALUES IN clause for each partition. This is used to determine which rows are to be stored in this partition. See the discussions of partitioning types in Chapter 23, Partitioning, for syntax examples.

    • [STORAGE] ENGINE

      MySQL accepts a [STORAGE] ENGINE option for both PARTITION and SUBPARTITION. Currently, the only way in which this option can be used is to set all partitions or all subpartitions to the same storage engine, and an attempt to set different storage engines for partitions or subpartitions in the same table will give rise to the error ERROR 1469 (HY000): The mix of handlers in the partitions is not permitted in this version of MySQL.

    • COMMENT

      An optional COMMENT clause may be used to specify a string that describes the partition. Example:

      COMMENT = 'Data for the years previous to 1999'
      

      The maximum length for a partition comment is 1024 characters.

    • DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY

      DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY may be used to indicate the directory where, respectively, the data and indexes for this partition are to be stored. Both the data_dir and the index_dir must be absolute system path names.

      You must have the FILE privilege to use the DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY partition option.

      Example:

      CREATE TABLE th (id INT, name VARCHAR(30), adate DATE)
      PARTITION BY LIST(YEAR(adate))
      (
        PARTITION p1999 VALUES IN (1995, 1999, 2003)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/95/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/95/idx',
        PARTITION p2000 VALUES IN (1996, 2000, 2004)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/96/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/96/idx',
        PARTITION p2001 VALUES IN (1997, 2001, 2005)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/97/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/97/idx',
        PARTITION p2002 VALUES IN (1998, 2002, 2006)
          DATA DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/98/data'
          INDEX DIRECTORY = '/var/appdata/98/idx'
      );
      

      DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY behave in the same way as in the CREATE TABLE statement's table_option clause as used for MyISAM tables.

      One data directory and one index directory may be specified per partition. If left unspecified, the data and indexes are stored by default in the table's database directory.

      The DATA DIRECTORY and INDEX DIRECTORY options are ignored for creating partitioned tables if NO_DIR_IN_CREATE is in effect.

    • MAX_ROWS and MIN_ROWS

      May be used to specify, respectively, the maximum and minimum number of rows to be stored in the partition. The values for max_number_of_rows and min_number_of_rows must be positive integers. As with the table-level options with the same names, these act only as suggestions to the server and are not hard limits.

    • TABLESPACE

      May be used to designate an InnoDB file-per-table tablespace for the partition by specifying TABLESPACE `innodb_file_per_table`. All partitions must belong to the same storage engine.

      Placing InnoDB table partitions in shared InnoDB tablespaces is not supported. Shared tablespaces include the InnoDB system tablespace and general tablespaces.

  • subpartition_definition

    The partition definition may optionally contain one or more subpartition_definition clauses. Each of these consists at a minimum of the SUBPARTITION name, where name is an identifier for the subpartition. Except for the replacement of the PARTITION keyword with SUBPARTITION, the syntax for a subpartition definition is identical to that for a partition definition.

    Subpartitioning must be done by HASH or KEY, and can be done only on RANGE or LIST partitions. See Section 23.2.6, “Subpartitioning”.

Partitioning by Generated Columns

Partitioning by generated columns is permitted. For example:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
  s1 INT,
  s2 INT AS (EXP(s1)) STORED
)
PARTITION BY LIST (s2) (
  PARTITION p1 VALUES IN (1)
);

Partitioning sees a generated column as a regular column, which enables workarounds for limitations on functions that are not permitted for partitioning (see Section 23.6.3, “Partitioning Limitations Relating to Functions”). The preceding example demonstrates this technique: EXP() cannot be used directly in the PARTITION BY clause, but a generated column defined using EXP() is permitted.

13.1.20.1 CREATE TABLE Statement Retention

The original CREATE TABLE statement, including all specifications and table options are stored by MySQL when the table is created. The information is retained so that if you change storage engines, collations or other settings using an ALTER TABLE statement, the original table options specified are retained. This enables you to change between InnoDB and MyISAM table types even though the row formats supported by the two engines are different.

Because the text of the original statement is retained, but due to the way that certain values and options may be silently reconfigured, the active table definition (accessible through DESCRIBE or with SHOW TABLE STATUS) and the table creation string (accessible through SHOW CREATE TABLE) may report different values.

For InnoDB tables, SHOW CREATE TABLE and the Create_options column reported by SHOW TABLE STATUS show the actual ROW_FORMAT and KEY_BLOCK_SIZE attributes used by the table. In previous MySQL releases, the originally specified values for these attributes were reported.

13.1.20.2 Files Created by CREATE TABLE

For an InnoDB table created in a file-per-table tablespace or general tablespace, table data and associated indexes are stored in a .ibd file in the database directory. When an InnoDB table is created in the system tablespace, table data and indexes are stored in the ibdata* files that represent the system tablespace. The innodb_file_per_table option controls whether tables are created in file-per-table tablespaces or the system tablespace, by default. The TABLESPACE option can be used to place a table in a file-per-table tablespace, general tablespace, or the system tablespace, regardless of the innodb_file_per_table setting.

For MyISAM tables, the storage engine creates data and index files. Thus, for each MyISAM table tbl_name, there are two disk files.

File Purpose
tbl_name.MYD Data file
tbl_name.MYI Index file

Chapter 16, Alternative Storage Engines, describes what files each storage engine creates to represent tables. If a table name contains special characters, the names for the table files contain encoded versions of those characters as described in Section 9.2.4, “Mapping of Identifiers to File Names”.

13.1.20.3 CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE Syntax

You can use the TEMPORARY keyword when creating a table. A TEMPORARY table is visible only within the current session, and is dropped automatically when the session is closed. This means that two different sessions can use the same temporary table name without conflicting with each other or with an existing non-TEMPORARY table of the same name. (The existing table is hidden until the temporary table is dropped.)

InnoDB does not support compressed temporary tables. When innodb_strict_mode is enabled (the default), CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE returns an error if ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED or KEY_BLOCK_SIZE is specified. If innodb_strict_mode is disabled, warnings are issued and the temporary table is created using a non-compressed row format. The innodb_file_per-table option does not affect the creation of InnoDB temporary tables.

CREATE TABLE causes an implicit commit, except when used with the TEMPORARY keyword. See Section 13.3.3, “Statements That Cause an Implicit Commit”.

TEMPORARY tables have a very loose relationship with databases (schemas). Dropping a database does not automatically drop any TEMPORARY tables created within that database.

To create a temporary table, you must have the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES privilege. After a session has created a temporary table, the server performs no further privilege checks on the table. The creating session can perform any operation on the table, such as DROP TABLE, INSERT, UPDATE, or SELECT.

One implication of this behavior is that a session can manipulate its temporary tables even if the current user has no privilege to create them. Suppose that the current user does not have the CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES privilege but is able to execute a definer-context stored procedure that executes with the privileges of a user who does have CREATE TEMPORARY TABLES and that creates a temporary table. While the procedure executes, the session uses the privileges of the defining user. After the procedure returns, the effective privileges revert to those of the current user, which can still see the temporary table and perform any operation on it.

You cannot use CREATE TEMPORY TABLE ... LIKE to create an empty table based on the definition of a table that resides in the mysql tablespace, InnoDB system tablespace (innodb_system), or a general tablespace. The tablespace definition for such a table includes a TABLESPACE attribute that defines the tablespace where the table resides, and the aforementioned tablespaces do not support temporary tables. To create a temporary table based on the definition of such a table, use this syntax instead:

CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE new_tbl SELECT * FROM orig_tbl LIMIT 0;        
Note

Support for TABLESPACE = innodb_file_per_table and TABLESPACE = innodb_temporary clauses with CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE is deprecated as of MySQL 8.0.13 and will be removed in a future version of MySQL.

13.1.20.4 CREATE TABLE ... LIKE Syntax

Use CREATE TABLE ... LIKE to create an empty table based on the definition of another table, including any column attributes and indexes defined in the original table:

CREATE TABLE new_tbl LIKE orig_tbl;

The copy is created using the same version of the table storage format as the original table. The SELECT privilege is required on the original table.

LIKE works only for base tables, not for views.

Important

You cannot execute CREATE TABLE or CREATE TABLE ... LIKE while a LOCK TABLES statement is in effect.

CREATE TABLE ... LIKE makes the same checks as CREATE TABLE. This means that if the current SQL mode is different from the mode in effect when the original table was created, the table definition might be considered invalid for the new mode and the statement will fail.

For CREATE TABLE ... LIKE, the destination table preserves generated column information from the original table.

For CREATE TABLE ... LIKE, the destination table preserves expression default values from the original table.

For CREATE TABLE ... LIKE, the destination table preserves CHECK constraints from the original table, except that all the constraint names are generated.

CREATE TABLE ... LIKE does not preserve any DATA DIRECTORY or INDEX DIRECTORY table options that were specified for the original table, or any foreign key definitions.

If the original table is a TEMPORARY table, CREATE TABLE ... LIKE does not preserve TEMPORARY. To create a TEMPORARY destination table, use CREATE TEMPORARY TABLE ... LIKE.

Tables created in the mysql tablespace, the InnoDB system tablespace (innodb_system), or general tablespaces include a TABLESPACE attribute in the table definition, which defines the tablespace where the table resides. Due to a temporary regression, CREATE TABLE ... LIKE preserves the TABLESPACE attribute and creates the table in the defined tablespace regardless of the innodb_file_per_table setting. To avoid the TABLESPACE attribute when creating an empty table based on the definition of such a table, use this syntax instead:

CREATE TABLE new_tbl SELECT * FROM orig_tbl LIMIT 0;        

13.1.20.5 CREATE TABLE ... SELECT Syntax

You can create one table from another by adding a SELECT statement at the end of the CREATE TABLE statement:

CREATE TABLE new_tbl [AS] SELECT * FROM orig_tbl;

MySQL creates new columns for all elements in the SELECT. For example:

mysql> CREATE TABLE test (a INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    ->        PRIMARY KEY (a), KEY(b))
    ->        ENGINE=MyISAM SELECT b,c FROM test2;

This creates a MyISAM table with three columns, a, b, and c. The ENGINE option is part of the CREATE TABLE statement, and should not be used following the SELECT; this would result in a syntax error. The same is true for other CREATE TABLE options such as CHARSET.

Notice that the columns from the SELECT statement are appended to the right side of the table, not overlapped onto it. Take the following example:

mysql> SELECT * FROM foo;
+---+
| n |
+---+
| 1 |
+---+

mysql> CREATE TABLE bar (m INT) SELECT n FROM foo;
Query OK, 1 row affected (0.02 sec)
Records: 1  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT * FROM bar;
+------+---+
| m    | n |
+------+---+
| NULL | 1 |
+------+---+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

For each row in table foo, a row is inserted in bar with the values from foo and default values for the new columns.

In a table resulting from CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, columns named only in the CREATE TABLE part come first. Columns named in both parts or only in the SELECT part come after that. The data type of SELECT columns can be overridden by also specifying the column in the CREATE TABLE part.

If any errors occur while copying the data to the table, it is automatically dropped and not created.

You can precede the SELECT by IGNORE or REPLACE to indicate how to handle rows that duplicate unique key values. With IGNORE, rows that duplicate an existing row on a unique key value are discarded. With REPLACE, new rows replace rows that have the same unique key value. If neither IGNORE nor REPLACE is specified, duplicate unique key values result in an error. For more information, see Comparison of the IGNORE Keyword and Strict SQL Mode.

Because the ordering of the rows in the underlying SELECT statements cannot always be determined, CREATE TABLE ... IGNORE SELECT and CREATE TABLE ... REPLACE SELECT statements are flagged as unsafe for statement-based replication. Such statements produce a warning in the error log when using statement-based mode and are written to the binary log using the row-based format when using MIXED mode. See also Section 17.2.1.1, “Advantages and Disadvantages of Statement-Based and Row-Based Replication”.

CREATE TABLE ... SELECT does not automatically create any indexes for you. This is done intentionally to make the statement as flexible as possible. If you want to have indexes in the created table, you should specify these before the SELECT statement:

mysql> CREATE TABLE bar (UNIQUE (n)) SELECT n FROM foo;

For CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, the destination table does not preserve information about whether columns in the selected-from table are generated columns. The SELECT part of the statement cannot assign values to generated columns in the destination table.

For CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, the destination table does preserve expression default values from the original table.

Some conversion of data types might occur. For example, the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute is not preserved, and VARCHAR columns can become CHAR columns. Retrained attributes are NULL (or NOT NULL) and, for those columns that have them, CHARACTER SET, COLLATION, COMMENT, and the DEFAULT clause.

When creating a table with CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, make sure to alias any function calls or expressions in the query. If you do not, the CREATE statement might fail or result in undesirable column names.

CREATE TABLE artists_and_works
  SELECT artist.name, COUNT(work.artist_id) AS number_of_works
  FROM artist LEFT JOIN work ON artist.id = work.artist_id
  GROUP BY artist.id;

You can also explicitly specify the data type for a column in the created table:

CREATE TABLE foo (a TINYINT NOT NULL) SELECT b+1 AS a FROM bar;

For CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, if IF NOT EXISTS is given and the target table exists, nothing is inserted into the destination table, and the statement is not logged.

To ensure that the binary log can be used to re-create the original tables, MySQL does not permit concurrent inserts during CREATE TABLE ... SELECT.

You cannot use FOR UPDATE as part of the SELECT in a statement such as CREATE TABLE new_table SELECT ... FROM old_table .... If you attempt to do so, the statement fails.

13.1.20.6 Using FOREIGN KEY Constraints

MySQL supports foreign keys, which let you cross-reference related data across tables, and foreign key constraints, which help keep this spread-out data consistent. The essential syntax for a foreign key constraint definition in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement looks like this:

[CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
    [index_name] (col_name, ...)
    REFERENCES tbl_name (col_name,...)
    [ON DELETE reference_option]
    [ON UPDATE reference_option]

reference_option:
    RESTRICT | CASCADE | SET NULL | NO ACTION | SET DEFAULT

index_name represents a foreign key ID. The index_name value is ignored if there is already an explicitly defined index on the child table that can support the foreign key. Otherwise, MySQL implicitly creates a foreign key index that is named according to the following rules:

  • If defined, the CONSTRAINT symbol value is used. Otherwise, the FOREIGN KEY index_name value is used.

  • If neither a CONSTRAINT symbol or FOREIGN KEY index_name is defined, the foreign key index name is generated using the name of the referencing foreign key column.

Foreign keys definitions are subject to the following conditions:

  • Foreign key relationships involve a parent table that holds the central data values, and a child table with identical values pointing back to its parent. The FOREIGN KEY clause is specified in the child table. The parent and child tables must use the same storage engine. They must not be TEMPORARY tables.

    In MySQL 8.0, creation of a foreign key constraint requires the REFERENCES privilege for the parent table.

  • Corresponding columns in the foreign key and the referenced key must have similar data types. The size and sign of integer types must be the same. The length of string types need not be the same. For nonbinary (character) string columns, the character set and collation must be the same.

  • When foreign_key_checks is enabled, which is the default setting, character set conversion is not permitted on tables that include a character string column used in a foreign key constraint. The workaround is described in Section 13.1.9, “ALTER TABLE Syntax”.

  • MySQL requires indexes on foreign keys and referenced keys so that foreign key checks can be fast and not require a table scan. In the referencing table, there must be an index where the foreign key columns are listed as the first columns in the same order. Such an index is created on the referencing table automatically if it does not exist. This index might be silently dropped later, if you create another index that can be used to enforce the foreign key constraint. index_name, if given, is used as described previously.

  • InnoDB permits a foreign key to reference any index column or group of columns. However, in the referenced table, there must be an index where the referenced columns are the first columns in the same order. Hidden columns that InnoDB adds to an index are also considered (see Section 15.6.2.1, “Clustered and Secondary Indexes”).

    NDB requires an explicit unique key (or primary key) on any column referenced as a foreign key.

  • Index prefixes on foreign key columns are not supported. One consequence of this is that BLOB and TEXT columns cannot be included in a foreign key because indexes on those columns must always include a prefix length.

  • If the CONSTRAINT symbol clause is given, the symbol value, if used, must be unique in the database. A duplicate symbol will result in an error similar to: ERROR 1022 (2300): Can't write; duplicate key in table '#sql- 464_1'. If the clause is not given, or a symbol is not included following the CONSTRAINT keyword, MySQL uses the foreign key index name up to MySQL 8.0.15, and automatically generates a constraint name thereafter.

  • InnoDB does not currently support foreign keys for tables with user-defined partitioning. This includes both parent and child tables.

    This restriction does not apply for NDB tables that are partitioned by KEY or LINEAR KEY (the only user partitioning types supported by the NDB storage engine); these may have foreign key references or be the targets of such references.

  • For NDB tables, ON UPDATE CASCADE is not supported where the reference is to the parent table's primary key.

  • As of NDB 8.0.16: For NDB tables, ON DELETE CASCADE is not supported where the child table contains one or more columns of any of the TEXT or BLOB types. (Bug #89511, Bug #27484882)

Additional aspects of FOREIGN KEY constraint usage are described under the following topics in this section:

Referential Actions

This section describes how foreign keys help guarantee referential integrity.

For storage engines supporting foreign keys, MySQL rejects any INSERT or UPDATE operation that attempts to create a foreign key value in a child table if there is no a matching candidate key value in the parent table.

When an UPDATE or DELETE operation affects a key value in the parent table that has matching rows in the child table, the result depends on the referential action specified using ON UPDATE and ON DELETE subclauses of the FOREIGN KEY clause. MySQL supports five options regarding the action to be taken, listed here:

  • CASCADE: Delete or update the row from the parent table, and automatically delete or update the matching rows in the child table. Both ON DELETE CASCADE and ON UPDATE CASCADE are supported. Between two tables, do not define several ON UPDATE CASCADE clauses that act on the same column in the parent table or in the child table.

    If a FOREIGN KEY clause is defined on both tables in a foreign key relationship, making both tables a parent and child, an ON UPDATE CASCADE or ON DELETE CASCADE subclause defined for one FOREIGN KEY clause must be defined for the other in order for cascading operations to succeed. If an ON UPDATE CASCADE or ON DELETE CASCADE subclause is only defined for one FOREIGN KEY clause, cascading operations fail with an error.

    Note

    Cascaded foreign key actions do not activate triggers.

  • SET NULL: Delete or update the row from the parent table, and set the foreign key column or columns in the child table to NULL. Both ON DELETE SET NULL and ON UPDATE SET NULL clauses are supported.

    If you specify a SET NULL action, make sure that you have not declared the columns in the child table as NOT NULL.

  • RESTRICT: Rejects the delete or update operation for the parent table. Specifying RESTRICT (or NO ACTION) is the same as omitting the ON DELETE or ON UPDATE clause.

  • NO ACTION: A keyword from standard SQL. In MySQL, equivalent to RESTRICT. The MySQL Server rejects the delete or update operation for the parent table if there is a related foreign key value in the referenced table. Some database systems have deferred checks, and NO ACTION is a deferred check. In MySQL, foreign key constraints are checked immediately, so NO ACTION is the same as RESTRICT.

  • SET DEFAULT: This action is recognized by the MySQL parser, but both InnoDB and NDB reject table definitions containing ON DELETE SET DEFAULT or ON UPDATE SET DEFAULT clauses.

For an ON DELETE or ON UPDATE that is not specified, the default action is always NO ACTION.

As the default, an ON DELETE NO ACTION or ON UPDATE NO ACTION clause that is specified explicitly does not appear in SHOW CREATE TABLE output or in tables dumped with mysqldump. RESTRICT, which is an equivalent non-default keyword, does appear SHOW CREATE TABLE output and in tables dumped with mysqldump.

MySQL supports foreign key references between one column and another within a table. (A column cannot have a foreign key reference to itself.) In these cases, child table records really refers to dependent records within the same table.

A foreign key constraint on a stored generated column cannot use CASCADE, SET NULL, or SET DEFAULT as ON UPDATE referential actions, nor can it use SET NULL or SET DEFAULT as ON DELETE referential actions.

A foreign key constraint on the base column of a stored generated column cannot use CASCADE, SET NULL, or SET DEFAULT as ON UPDATE or ON DELETE referential actions.

A foreign key constraint cannot reference a virtual generated column.

For InnoDB restrictions related to foreign keys and generated columns, see Section 15.6.1.5, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

Examples of Foreign Key Clauses

Here is a simple example that relates parent and child tables through a single-column foreign key:

CREATE TABLE parent (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
) ENGINE=INNODB;

CREATE TABLE child (
    id INT,
    parent_id INT,
    INDEX par_ind (parent_id),
    FOREIGN KEY (parent_id)
        REFERENCES parent(id)
        ON DELETE CASCADE
) ENGINE=INNODB;

A more complex example in which a product_order table has foreign keys for two other tables. One foreign key references a two-column index in the product table. The other references a single-column index in the customer table:

CREATE TABLE product (
    category INT NOT NULL, id INT NOT NULL,
    price DECIMAL,
    PRIMARY KEY(category, id)
)   ENGINE=INNODB;

CREATE TABLE customer (
    id INT NOT NULL,
    PRIMARY KEY (id)
)   ENGINE=INNODB;

CREATE TABLE product_order (
    no INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT,
    product_category INT NOT NULL,
    product_id INT NOT NULL,
    customer_id INT NOT NULL,

    PRIMARY KEY(no),
    INDEX (product_category, product_id),
    INDEX (customer_id),

    FOREIGN KEY (product_category, product_id)
      REFERENCES product(category, id)
      ON UPDATE CASCADE ON DELETE RESTRICT,

    FOREIGN KEY (customer_id)
      REFERENCES customer(id)
)   ENGINE=INNODB;
Adding Foreign Keys

You can add a new foreign key constraint to an existing table by using ALTER TABLE. The syntax relating to foreign keys for this statement is shown here:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name
    ADD [CONSTRAINT [symbol]] FOREIGN KEY
    [index_name] (col_name, ...)
    REFERENCES tbl_name (col_name,...)
    [ON DELETE reference_option]
    [ON UPDATE reference_option]

The foreign key can be self referential (referring to the same table). When you add a foreign key constraint to a table using ALTER TABLE, remember to create the required indexes first.

Dropping Foreign Keys

You can also use ALTER TABLE to drop foreign keys, using the syntax shown here:

ALTER TABLE tbl_name DROP FOREIGN KEY fk_symbol;

If the FOREIGN KEY clause included a CONSTRAINT name when you created the foreign key, you can refer to that name to drop the foreign key. Otherwise, the fk_symbol value is generated internally when the foreign key is created. To find out the symbol value when you want to drop a foreign key, use a SHOW CREATE TABLE statement, as shown here:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE ibtest11c\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: ibtest11c
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `ibtest11c` (
  `A` int(11) NOT NULL auto_increment,
  `D` int(11) NOT NULL default '0',
  `B` varchar(200) NOT NULL default '',
  `C` varchar(175) default NULL,
  PRIMARY KEY  (`A`,`D`,`B`),
  KEY `B` (`B`,`C`),
  KEY `C` (`C`),
  CONSTRAINT `0_38775` FOREIGN KEY (`A`, `D`)
REFERENCES `ibtest11a` (`A`, `D`)
ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE,
  CONSTRAINT `0_38776` FOREIGN KEY (`B`, `C`)
REFERENCES `ibtest11a` (`B`, `C`)
ON DELETE CASCADE ON UPDATE CASCADE
) ENGINE=INNODB CHARSET=utf8mb4
1 row in set (0.01 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE ibtest11c DROP FOREIGN KEY `0_38775`;

Adding and dropping a foreign key in the same ALTER TABLE statement is supported for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE but is unsupported for ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=COPY.

Foreign Keys and Other MySQL Statements

Table and column identifiers in a FOREIGN KEY ... REFERENCES ... clause can be quoted within backticks (`). Alternatively, double quotation marks (") can be used if the ANSI_QUOTES SQL mode is enabled. The setting of the lower_case_table_names system variable is also taken into account.

You can view a child table's foreign key definitions as part of the output of the SHOW CREATE TABLE statement:

SHOW CREATE TABLE tbl_name;

You can also obtain information about foreign keys by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE table.

You can find information about foreign keys used by InnoDB tables in the INNODB_FOREIGN and INNODB_FOREIGN_COLS tables, also in the INFORMATION_SCHEMA database.

mysqldump produces correct definitions of tables in the dump file, including the foreign keys for child tables.

To make it easier to reload dump files for tables that have foreign key relationships, mysqldump automatically includes a statement in the dump output to set foreign_key_checks to 0. This avoids problems with tables having to be reloaded in a particular order when the dump is reloaded. It is also possible to set this variable manually:

mysql> SET foreign_key_checks = 0;
mysql> SOURCE dump_file_name;
mysql> SET foreign_key_checks = 1;

This enables you to import the tables in any order if the dump file contains tables that are not correctly ordered for foreign keys. It also speeds up the import operation. Setting foreign_key_checks to 0 can also be useful for ignoring foreign key constraints during LOAD DATA and ALTER TABLE operations. However, even if foreign_key_checks = 0, MySQL does not permit the creation of a foreign key constraint where a column references a nonmatching column type. Also, if a table has foreign key constraints, ALTER TABLE cannot be used to alter the table to use another storage engine. To change the storage engine, you must drop any foreign key constraints first.

You cannot issue DROP TABLE for a table that is referenced by a FOREIGN KEY constraint, unless you do SET foreign_key_checks = 0. When you drop a table, any constraints that were defined in the statement used to create that table are also dropped.

If you re-create a table that was dropped, it must have a definition that conforms to the foreign key constraints referencing it. It must have the correct column names and types, and it must have indexes on the referenced keys, as stated earlier. If these are not satisfied, MySQL returns Error 1005 and refers to Error 150 in the error message, which means that a foreign key constraint was not correctly formed. Similarly, if an ALTER TABLE fails due to Error 150, this means that a foreign key definition would be incorrectly formed for the altered table.

For InnoDB tables, you can obtain a detailed explanation of the most recent InnoDB foreign key error in the MySQL Server, by checking the output of SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS.

MySQL extends metadata locks, as necessary, to tables that are related by a foreign key constraint. Extending metadata locks prevents conflicting DML and DDL operations from executing concurrently on related tables. This feature also enables updates to foreign key metadata when a parent table is modified. In earlier MySQL releases, foreign key metadata, which is owned by the child table, could not be updated safely.

If a table is locked explicitly with LOCK TABLES, any tables related by a foreign key constraint are opened and locked implicitly. For foreign key checks, a shared read-only lock (LOCK TABLES READ) is taken on related tables. For cascading updates, a shared-nothing write lock (LOCK TABLES WRITE) is taken on related tables that are involved in the operation.

Foreign Keys and the ANSI/ISO SQL Standard

For users familiar with the ANSI/ISO SQL Standard, please note that no storage engine, including InnoDB, recognizes or enforces the MATCH clause used in referential-integrity constraint definitions. Use of an explicit MATCH clause will not have the specified effect, and also causes ON DELETE and ON UPDATE clauses to be ignored. For these reasons, specifying MATCH should be avoided.

The MATCH clause in the SQL standard controls how NULL values in a composite (multiple-column) foreign key are handled when comparing to a primary key. MySQL essentially implements the semantics defined by MATCH SIMPLE, which permit a foreign key to be all or partially NULL. In that case, the (child table) row containing such a foreign key is permitted to be inserted, and does not match any row in the referenced (parent) table. It is possible to implement other semantics using triggers.

Additionally, MySQL requires that the referenced columns be indexed for performance reasons. However, the system does not enforce a requirement that the referenced columns be UNIQUE or be declared NOT NULL. The handling of foreign key references to nonunique keys or keys that contain NULL values is not well defined for operations such as UPDATE or DELETE CASCADE. You are advised to use foreign keys that reference only UNIQUE (including PRIMARY) and NOT NULL keys.

Furthermore, MySQL parses but ignores inline REFERENCES specifications (as defined in the SQL standard) where the references are defined as part of the column specification. MySQL accepts REFERENCES clauses only when specified as part of a separate FOREIGN KEY specification. For storage engines that do not support foreign keys (such as MyISAM), MySQL Server parses and ignores foreign key specifications.

Foreign Key Metadata

The INFORMATION_SCHEMA.KEY_COLUMN_USAGE table identifies the key columns that have constraints. Metadata specific to InnoDB foreign keys is found in the INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN and INNODB_SYS_FOREIGN_COLS tables.

Foreign Key Errors

In the event of a foreign key error involving InnoDB tables (usually Error 150 in the MySQL Server), information about the most recent InnoDB foreign key error can be obtained by checking SHOW ENGINE INNODB STATUS output.

Warning

If a user has table-level privileges for all parent tables, ER_NO_REFERENCED_ROW_2 and ER_ROW_IS_REFERENCED_2 error messages for foreign key operations expose information about parent tables. If a user does not have table-level privileges for all parent tables, more generic error messages are displayed instead (ER_NO_REFERENCED_ROW and ER_ROW_IS_REFERENCED).

An exception is that, for stored programs defined to execute with DEFINER privileges, the user against which privileges are assessed is the user in the program DEFINER clause, not the invoking user. If that user has table-level parent table privileges, parent table information is still displayed. In this case, it is the responsibility of the stored program creator to hide the information by including appropriate condition handlers.

13.1.20.7 CHECK Constraints

Prior to MySQL 8.0.16, CREATE TABLE permits only the following limited version of table CHECK constraint syntax, which is parsed and ignored:

CHECK (expr)

As of MySQL 8.0.16, CREATE TABLE permits the core features of table and column CHECK constraints, for all storage engines. CREATE TABLE permits the following CHECK constraint syntax, for both table constraints and column constraints:

[CONSTRAINT [symbol]] CHECK (expr) [[NOT] ENFORCED]

The optional symbol specifies a name for the constraint. If omitted, MySQL generates a name from the table name, a literal _chk_, and an ordinal number (1, 2, 3, ...). Constraint names have a maximum length of 64 characters. They are case sensitive, but not accent sensitive.

expr specifies the constraint condition as a boolean expression that must evaluate to TRUE or UNKNOWN (for NULL values) for each row of the table. If the condition evaluates to FALSE, it fails and a constraint violation occurs. The effect of a violation depends on the statement being executed, as described later in this section.

The optional enforcement clause indicates whether the constraint is enforced:

  • If omitted or specified as ENFORCED, the constraint is created and enforced.

  • If specified as NOT ENFORCED, the constraint is created but not enforced.

A CHECK constraint is specified as either a table constraint or column constraint:

  • A table constraint does not appear within a column definition and can refer to any table column or columns. Forward references are permitted to columns appearing later in the table definition.

  • A column constraint appears within a column definition and can refer only to that column.

Consider this table definition:

CREATE TABLE t1
(
  CHECK (c1 <> c2),
  c1 INT CHECK (c1 > 10),
  c2 INT CONSTRAINT c2_positive CHECK (c2 > 0),
  c3 INT CHECK (c3 < 100),
  CONSTRAINT c1_nonzero CHECK (c1 <> 0),
  CHECK (c1 > c3)
);

The definition includes table constraints and column constraints, in named and unnamed formats:

  • The first constraint is a table constraint: It occurs outside any column definition, so it can (and does) refer to multiple table columns. This constraint contains forward references to columns not defined yet. No constraint name is specified, so MySQL generates a name.

  • The next three constraints are column constraints: Each occurs within a column definition, and thus can refer only to the column being defined. One of the constraints is named explicitly. MySQL generates a name for each of the other two.

  • The last two contraints are table constraints. One of them is named explicitly. MySQL generates a name for the other one.

As mentioned, MySQL generates a name for any CHECK constraint specified without one. To see the names generated for the preceding table definition, use SHOW CREATE TABLE:

mysql> SHOW CREATE TABLE t1\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
       Table: t1
Create Table: CREATE TABLE `t1` (
  `c1` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `c2` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  `c3` int(11) DEFAULT NULL,
  CONSTRAINT `c1_nonzero` CHECK ((`c1` <> 0)),
  CONSTRAINT `c2_positive` CHECK ((`c2` > 0)),
  CONSTRAINT `t1_chk_1` CHECK ((`c1` <> `c2`)),
  CONSTRAINT `t1_chk_2` CHECK ((`c1` > 10)),
  CONSTRAINT `t1_chk_3` CHECK ((`c3` < 100)),
  CONSTRAINT `t1_chk_4` CHECK ((`c1` > `c3`))
) ENGINE=InnoDB DEFAULT CHARSET=utf8mb4 COLLATE=utf8mb4_0900_ai_ci

The SQL standard specifies that all types of constraints (primary key, unique index, foreign key, check) belong to the same namespace. In MySQL, each constraint type has its own namespace per schema (database). Consequently, CHECK constraint names must be unique per schema; no two tables in the same schema can share a CHECK constraint name. (Exception: A TEMPORARY table hides a non-TEMPORARY table of the same name, so it can have the same CHECK constraint names as well.)

Beginning generated constraint names with the table name helps ensure schema uniqueness because table names also must be unique within the schema.

CHECK condition expressions must adhere to the following rules. An error occurs if an expression contains disallowed constructs.

  • Nongenerated and generated columns are permitted, except columns with the AUTO_INCREMENT attribute and columns in other tables.

  • Literals, deterministic built-in functions, and operators are permitted. A function is deterministic if, given the same data in tables, multiple invocations produce the same result, independently of the connected user. Examples of functions that are nondeterministic and fail this definition: CONNECTION_ID(), CURRENT_USER(), NOW().

  • Stored functions and user-defined functions are not permitted.

  • Stored procedure and function parameters are not permitted.

  • Variables (system variables, user-defined variables, and stored program local variables) are not permitted.

  • Subqueries are not permitted.

Foreign key referential actions (ON UPDATE, ON DELETE) are prohibited on columns used in CHECK constraints. Likewise, CHECK constraints are prohibited on columns used in foreign key referential actions.

CHECK constraints are evaluated for INSERT, UPDATE, REPLACE, LOAD DATA, and LOAD XML statements and an error occurs if a constraint evaluates to FALSE. If an error occurs, handling of changes already applied differs for transactional and nontransactional storage engines, and also depends on whether strict SQL mode is in effect, as described in Strict SQL Mode.

CHECK constraints are evaluated for INSERT IGNORE, UPDATE IGNORE, LOAD DATA ... IGNORE, and LOAD XML ... IGNORE statements and a warning occurs if a constraint evaluates to FALSE. The insert or update for any offending row is skipped.

If the constraint expression evaluates to a data type that differs from the declared column type, implicit coercion to the declared type occurs according to the usual MySQL type-conversion rules. See Section 12.2, “Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation”. If type conversion fails or results in a loss of precision, an error occurs.

Note

Constraint expression evaluation uses the SQL mode in effect at evaluation time. If any component of the expression depends on the SQL mode, different results may occur for different uses of the table unless the SQL mode is the same during all uses.

13.1.20.8 Silent Column Specification Changes

In some cases, MySQL silently changes column specifications from those given in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement. These might be changes to a data type, to attributes associated with a data type, or to an index specification.

All changes are subject to the internal row-size limit of 65,535 bytes, which may cause some attempts at data type changes to fail. See Section 8.4.7, “Limits on Table Column Count and Row Size”.

  • Columns that are part of a PRIMARY KEY are made NOT NULL even if not declared that way.

  • Trailing spaces are automatically deleted from ENUM and SET member values when the table is created.

  • MySQL maps certain data types used by other SQL database vendors to MySQL types. See Section 11.10, “Using Data Types from Other Database Engines”.

  • If you include a USING clause to specify an index type that is not permitted for a given storage engine, but there is another index type available that the engine can use without affecting query results, the engine uses the available type.

  • If strict SQL mode is not enabled, a VARCHAR column with a length specification greater than 65535 is converted to TEXT, and a VARBINARY column with a length specification greater than 65535 is converted to BLOB. Otherwise, an error occurs in either of these cases.

  • Specifying the CHARACTER SET binary attribute for a character data type causes the column to be created as the corresponding binary data type: CHAR becomes BINARY, VARCHAR becomes VARBINARY, and TEXT becomes BLOB. For the ENUM and SET data types, this does not occur; they are created as declared. Suppose that you specify a table using this definition:

    CREATE TABLE t
    (
      c1 VARCHAR(10) CHARACTER SET binary,
      c2 TEXT CHARACTER SET binary,
      c3 ENUM('a','b','c') CHARACTER SET binary
    );
    

    The resulting table has this definition:

    CREATE TABLE t
    (
      c1 VARBINARY(10),
      c2 BLOB,
      c3 ENUM('a','b','c') CHARACTER SET binary
    );
    

To see whether MySQL used a data type other than the one you specified, issue a DESCRIBE or SHOW CREATE TABLE statement after creating or altering the table.

Certain other data type changes can occur if you compress a table using myisampack. See Section 16.2.3.3, “Compressed Table Characteristics”.

13.1.20.9 CREATE TABLE and Generated Columns

CREATE TABLE supports the specification of generated columns. Values of a generated column are computed from an expression included in the column definition.

Generated columns are also supported by the NDB storage engine.

The following simple example shows a table that stores the lengths of the sides of right triangles in the sidea and sideb columns, and computes the length of the hypotenuse in sidec (the square root of the sums of the squares of the other sides):

CREATE TABLE triangle (
  sidea DOUBLE,
  sideb DOUBLE,
  sidec DOUBLE AS (SQRT(sidea * sidea + sideb * sideb))
);
INSERT INTO triangle (sidea, sideb) VALUES(1,1),(3,4),(6,8);

Selecting from the table yields this result:

mysql> SELECT * FROM triangle;
+-------+-------+--------------------+
| sidea | sideb | sidec              |
+-------+-------+--------------------+
|     1 |     1 | 1.4142135623730951 |
|     3 |     4 |                  5 |
|     6 |     8 |                 10 |
+-------+-------+--------------------+

Any application that uses the triangle table has access to the hypotenuse values without having to specify the expression that calculates them.

Generated column definitions have this syntax:

col_name data_type [GENERATED ALWAYS] AS (expr)
  [VIRTUAL | STORED] [NOT NULL | NULL]
  [UNIQUE [KEY]] [[PRIMARY] KEY]
  [COMMENT 'string']

AS (expr) indicates that the column is generated and defines the expression used to compute column values. AS may be preceded by GENERATED ALWAYS to make the generated nature of the column more explicit. Constructs that are permitted or prohibited in the expression are discussed later.

The VIRTUAL or STORED keyword indicates how column values are stored, which has implications for column use:

  • VIRTUAL: Column values are not stored, but are evaluated when rows are read, immediately after any BEFORE triggers. A virtual column takes no storage.

    InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual columns. See Section 13.1.20.10, “Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns”.

  • STORED: Column values are evaluated and stored when rows are inserted or updated. A stored column does require storage space and can be indexed.

The default is VIRTUAL if neither keyword is specified.

It is permitted to mix VIRTUAL and STORED columns within a table.

Other attributes may be given to indicate whether the column is indexed or can be NULL, or provide a comment.

Generated column expressions must adhere to the following rules. An error occurs if an expression contains disallowed constructs.

  • Literals, deterministic built-in functions, and operators are permitted. A function is deterministic if, given the same data in tables, multiple invocations produce the same result, independently of the connected user. Examples of functions that are nondeterministic and fail this definition: CONNECTION_ID(), CURRENT_USER(), NOW().

  • Stored functions and user-defined functions are not permitted.

  • Stored procedure and function parameters are not permitted.

  • Variables (system variables, user-defined variables, and stored program local variables) are not permitted.

  • Subqueries are not permitted.

  • A generated column definition can refer to other generated columns, but only those occurring earlier in the table definition. A generated column definition can refer to any base (nongenerated) column in the table whether its definition occurs earlier or later.

  • The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute cannot be used in a generated column definition.

  • An AUTO_INCREMENT column cannot be used as a base column in a generated column definition.

  • If expression evaluation causes truncation or provides incorrect input to a function, the CREATE TABLE statement terminates with an error and the DDL operation is rejected.

If the expression evaluates to a data type that differs from the declared column type, implicit coercion to the declared type occurs according to the usual MySQL type-conversion rules. See Section 12.2, “Type Conversion in Expression Evaluation”.

Note

Expression evaluation uses the SQL mode in effect at evaluation time. If any component of the expression depends on the SQL mode, different results may occur for different uses of the table unless the SQL mode is the same during all uses.

For CREATE TABLE ... LIKE, the destination table preserves generated column information from the original table.

For CREATE TABLE ... SELECT, the destination table does not preserve information about whether columns in the selected-from table are generated columns. The SELECT part of the statement cannot assign values to generated columns in the destination table.

Partitioning by generated columns is permitted. See Table Partitioning.

A foreign key constraint on a stored generated column cannot use CASCADE, SET NULL, or SET DEFAULT as ON UPDATE referential actions, nor can it use SET NULL or SET DEFAULT as ON DELETE referential actions.

A foreign key constraint on the base column of a stored generated column cannot use CASCADE, SET NULL, or SET DEFAULT as ON UPDATE or ON DELETE referential actions.

A foreign key constraint cannot reference a virtual generated column.

For InnoDB restrictions related to foreign keys and generated columns, see Section 15.6.1.5, “InnoDB and FOREIGN KEY Constraints”.

Triggers cannot use NEW.col_name or use OLD.col_name to refer to generated columns.

For INSERT, REPLACE, and UPDATE, if a generated column is inserted into, replaced, or updated explicitly, the only permitted value is DEFAULT.

A generated column in a view is considered updatable because it is possible to assign to it. However, if such a column is updated explicitly, the only permitted value is DEFAULT.

Generated columns have several use cases, such as these:

  • Virtual generated columns can be used as a way to simplify and unify queries. A complicated condition can be defined as a generated column and referred to from multiple queries on the table to ensure that all of them use exactly the same condition.

  • Stored generated columns can be used as a materialized cache for complicated conditions that are costly to calculate on the fly.

  • Generated columns can simulate functional indexes: Use a generated column to define a functional expression and index it. This can be useful for working with columns of types that cannot be indexed directly, such as JSON columns; see Indexing a Generated Column to Provide a JSON Column Index, for a detailed example.

    For stored generated columns, the disadvantage of this approach is that values are stored twice; once as the value of the generated column and once in the index.

  • If a generated column is indexed, the optimizer recognizes query expressions that match the column definition and uses indexes from the column as appropriate during query execution, even if a query does not refer to the column directly by name. For details, see Section 8.3.11, “Optimizer Use of Generated Column Indexes”.

Example:

Suppose that a table t1 contains first_name and last_name columns and that applications frequently construct the full name using an expression like this:

SELECT CONCAT(first_name,' ',last_name) AS full_name FROM t1;

One way to avoid writing out the expression is to create a view v1 on t1, which simplifies applications by enabling them to select full_name directly without using an expression:

CREATE VIEW v1 AS
SELECT *, CONCAT(first_name,' ',last_name) AS full_name FROM t1;

SELECT full_name FROM v1;

A generated column also enables applications to select full_name directly without the need to define a view:

CREATE TABLE t1 (
  first_name VARCHAR(10),
  last_name VARCHAR(10),
  full_name VARCHAR(255) AS (CONCAT(first_name,' ',last_name))
);

SELECT full_name FROM t1;

13.1.20.10 Secondary Indexes and Generated Columns

InnoDB supports secondary indexes on virtual generated columns. Other index types are not supported. A secondary index defined on a virtual column is sometimes referred to as a virtual index.

A secondary index may be created on one or more virtual columns or on a combination of virtual columns and regular columns or stored generated columns. Secondary indexes that include virtual columns may be defined as UNIQUE.

When a secondary index is created on a virtual generated column, generated column values are materialized in the records of the index. If the index is a covering index (one that includes all the columns retrieved by a query), generated column values are retrieved from materialized values in the index structure instead of computed on the fly.

There are additional write costs to consider when using a secondary index on a virtual column due to computation performed when materializing virtual column values in secondary index records during INSERT and UPDATE operations. Even with additional write costs, secondary indexes on virtual columns may be preferable to generated stored columns, which are materialized in the clustered index, resulting in larger tables that require more disk space and memory. If a secondary index is not defined on a virtual column, there are additional costs for reads, as virtual column values must be computed each time the column's row is examined.

Values of an indexed virtual column are MVCC-logged to avoid unnecessary recomputation of generated column values during rollback or during a purge operation. The data length of logged values is limited by the index key limit of 767 bytes for COMPACT and REDUNDANT row formats, and 3072 bytes for DYNAMIC and COMPRESSED row formats.

Adding or dropping a secondary index on a virtual column is an in-place operation.

Indexing a Generated Column to Provide a JSON Column Index

As noted elsewhere, JSON columns cannot be indexed directly. To create an index that references such a column indirectly, you can define a generated column that extracts the information that should be indexed, then create an index on the generated column, as shown in this example:

mysql> CREATE TABLE jemp (
    ->     c JSON,
    ->     g INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c->"$.id")),
    ->     INDEX i (g)
    -> );
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.28 sec)

mysql> INSERT INTO jemp (c) VALUES
     >   ('{"id": "1", "name": "Fred"}'), ('{"id": "2", "name": "Wilma"}'),
     >   ('{"id": "3", "name": "Barney"}'), ('{"id": "4", "name": "Betty"}');
Query OK, 4 rows affected (0.04 sec)
Records: 4  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT c->>"$.name" AS name
     >     FROM jemp WHERE g > 2;
+--------+
| name   |
+--------+
| Barney |
| Betty  |
+--------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT c->>"$.name" AS name
     >    FROM jemp WHERE g > 2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: jemp
   partitions: NULL
         type: range
possible_keys: i
          key: i
      key_len: 5
          ref: NULL
         rows: 2
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using where
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Note
   Code: 1003
Message: /* select#1 */ select json_unquote(json_extract(`test`.`jemp`.`c`,'$.name'))
AS `name` from `test`.`jemp` where (`test`.`jemp`.`g` > 2)
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

(We have wrapped the output from the last statement in this example to fit the viewing area.)

When you use EXPLAIN on a SELECT or other SQL statement containing one or more expressions that use the -> or ->> operator, these expressions are translated into their equivalents using JSON_EXTRACT() and (if needed) JSON_UNQUOTE() instead, as shown here in the output from SHOW WARNINGS immediately following this EXPLAIN statement:

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT c->>"$.name"
     > FROM jemp WHERE g > 2 ORDER BY c->"$.name"\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: jemp
   partitions: NULL
         type: range
possible_keys: i
          key: i
      key_len: 5
          ref: NULL
         rows: 2
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using where; Using filesort
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Note
   Code: 1003
Message: /* select#1 */ select json_unquote(json_extract(`test`.`jemp`.`c`,'$.name')) AS
`c->>"$.name"` from `test`.`jemp` where (`test`.`jemp`.`g` > 2) order by
json_extract(`test`.`jemp`.`c`,'$.name')
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

See the descriptions of the -> and ->> operators, as well as those of the JSON_EXTRACT() and JSON_UNQUOTE() functions, for additional information and examples.

This technique also can be used to provide indexes that indirectly reference columns of other types that cannot be indexed directly, such as GEOMETRY columns.

JSON columns and indirect indexing in NDB Cluster

It is also possible to use indirect indexing of JSON columns in MySQL NDB Cluster, subject to the following conditions:

  1. NDB handles a JSON column value internally as a BLOB. This means that any NDB table having one or more JSON columns must have a primary key, else it cannot be recorded in the binary log.

  2. The NDB storage engine does not support indexing of virtual columns. Since the default for generated columns is VIRTUAL, you must specify explicitly the generated column to which to apply the indirect index as STORED.

The CREATE TABLE statement used to create the table jempn shown here is a version of the jemp table shown previously, with modifications making it compatible with NDB:

CREATE TABLE jempn (
  a BIGINT(20) NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
  c JSON DEFAULT NULL,
  g INT GENERATED ALWAYS AS (c->"$.name") STORED,
  INDEX i (g)
) ENGINE=NDB;

We can populate this table using the following INSERT statement:

INSERT INTO jempn (a, c) VALUES   
  (NULL, '{"id": "1", "name": "Fred"}'), 
  (NULL, '{"id": "2", "name": "Wilma"}'),   
  (NULL, '{"id": "3", "name": "Barney"}'), 
  (NULL, '{"id": "4", "name": "Betty"}');

Now NDB can use index i, as shown here:

mysql> EXPLAIN SELECT c->>"$.name" AS name         
          FROM jempn WHERE g > 2\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
           id: 1
  select_type: SIMPLE
        table: jempn
   partitions: p0,p1
         type: range
possible_keys: i
          key: i
      key_len: 5
          ref: NULL
         rows: 3
     filtered: 100.00
        Extra: Using where with pushed condition (`test`.`jempn`.`g` > 2)
1 row in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)

mysql> SHOW WARNINGS\G
*************************** 1. row ***************************
  Level: Note
   Code: 1003
Message: /* select#1 */ select
json_unquote(json_extract(`test`.`jempn`.`c`,'$.name')) AS `name` from
`test`.`jempn` where (`test`.`jempn`.`g` > 2)  
1 row in set (0.00 sec)

You should keep in mind that a stored generated column uses DataMemory, and that an index on such a column uses IndexMemory.

13.1.20.11 Setting NDB_TABLE Options

In MySQL NDB Cluster, the table comment in a CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE statement can also be used to specify an NDB_TABLE option, which consists of one or more name-value pairs, separated by commas if need be, following the string NDB_TABLE=. Complete syntax for names and values syntax is shown here:

COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=ndb_table_option[,ndb_table_option[,...]]"

ndb_table_option:
    NOLOGGING={1|0}
  | READ_BACKUP={1|0}
  | PARTITION_BALANCE={FOR_RP_BY_NODE|FOR_RA_BY_NODE|FOR_RP_BY_LDM
                      |FOR_RA_BY_LDM|FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_2
                      |FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_3|FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_4}
  | FULLY_REPLICATED={1|0}

Spaces are not permitted within the quoted string. The string is case-insensitive.

The four NDB table options that can be set as part of a comment in this way are described in more detail in the next few paragraphs.

NOLOGGING: Using 1 corresponds to having ndb_table_no_logging enabled, but has no actual effect. Provided as a placeholder, mostly for completeness of ALTER TABLE statements.

READ_BACKUP: Setting this option to 1 has the same effect as though ndb_read_backup were enabled; enables reading from any replica. You can set READ_BACKUP for an existing table online, using an ALTER TABLE statement similar to one of those shown here:

ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=1";

ALTER TABLE ... ALGORITHM=INPLACE, COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0";

For more information about the ALGORITHM option for ALTER TABLE, see Section 22.5.14, “Online Operations with ALTER TABLE in NDB Cluster”.

PARTITION_BALANCE: Provides additional control over assignment and placement of partitions. The following four schemes are supported:

  1. FOR_RP_BY_NODE: One partition per node.

    Only one LDM on each node stores a primary partition. Each partition is stored in the same LDM (same ID) on all nodes.

  2. FOR_RA_BY_NODE: One partition per node group.

    Each node stores a single partition, which can be either a primary replica or a backup replica. Each partition is stored in the same LDM on all nodes.

  3. FOR_RP_BY_LDM: One partition for each LDM on each node; the default.

    This is the same behavior as prior to MySQL NDB Cluster 7.5.2, except for a slightly different mapping of partitions to LDMs, starting with LDM 0 and placing one partition per node group, then moving on to the next LDM.

    This is the setting used if READ_BACKUP is set to 1.

  4. FOR_RA_BY_LDM: One partition per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

  5. FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_2: Two partitions per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

  6. FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_3: Three partitions per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

  7. FOR_RA_BY_LDM_X_4: Four partitions per LDM in each node group.

    These partitions can be primary or backup partitions.

PARTITION_BALANCE is the preferred interface for setting the number of partitions per table. Using MAX_ROWS to force the number of partitions is deprecated but continues to be supported for backward compatibility; it is subject to removal in a future release of MySQL NDB Cluster. (Bug #81759, Bug #23544301)

FULLY_REPLICATED controls whether the table is fully replicated, that is, whether each data node has a complete copy of the table. To enable full replication of the table, use FULLY_REPLICATED=1.

This setting can also be controlled using the ndb_fully_replicated system variable. Setting it to ON enables the option by default for all new NDB tables; the default is OFF. The ndb_data_node_neighbour system variable is also used for fully replicated tables, to ensure that when a fully replicated table is accessed, we access the data node which is local to this MySQL Server.

An example of a CREATE TABLE statement using such a comment when creating an NDB table is shown here:

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (
     >     c1 INT NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
     >     c2 VARCHAR(100),
     >     c3 VARCHAR(100) )
     > ENGINE=NDB
     >
COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE";

The comment is displayed as part of the ouput of SHOW CREATE TABLE. The text of the comment is also available from querying the MySQL Information Schema TABLES table, as in this example:

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                            |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE |
| t1         | d            |                                                          |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

This comment syntax is also supported with ALTER TABLE statements for NDB tables. Keep in mind that a table comment used with ALTER TABLE replaces any existing comment which the table might have.

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (0.40 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                    |
+------------+--------------+--------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE       |
| t1         | d            |                                                  |
+------------+--------------+--------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

You can also see the value of the PARTITION_BALANCE option in the output of ndb_desc. ndb_desc also shows whether the READ_BACKUP and FULLY_REPLICATED options are set for the table. See the description of this program for more information.

Because the READ_BACKUP value was not carried over to the new comment set by the ALTER TABLE statement, there is no longer a way using SQL to retrieve the value previously set for it. To keep this from happening, it is suggested that you preserve any such values from the existing comment string, like this:

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                            |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RP_BY_NODE |
| t1         | d            |                                                          |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

mysql> ALTER TABLE t1 COMMENT="NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE";
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.56 sec)
Records: 0  Duplicates: 0  Warnings: 0

mysql> SELECT TABLE_NAME, TABLE_SCHEMA, TABLE_COMMENT
     > FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.TABLES WHERE TABLE_NAME="t1";
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| TABLE_NAME | TABLE_SCHEMA | TABLE_COMMENT                                                  |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
| t1         | c            | NDB_TABLE=READ_BACKUP=0,PARTITION_BALANCE=FOR_RA_BY_NODE       |
| t1         | d            |                                                                |
+------------+--------------+----------------------------------------------------------------+
2 rows in set (0.01 sec)

13.1.21 CREATE TABLESPACE Syntax

CREATE [UNDO] TABLESPACE tablespace_name

  InnoDB and NDB:
    [ADD DATAFILE 'file_name']

  InnoDB only:
    [FILE_BLOCK_SIZE = value]
    [ENCRYPTION [=] {'Y' | 'N'}]

  NDB only:
    USE LOGFILE GROUP logfile_group
    [EXTENT_SIZE [=] extent_size]
    [INITIAL_SIZE [=] initial_size]
    [AUTOEXTEND_SIZE [=] autoextend_size]
    [MAX_SIZE [=] max_size]
    [NODEGROUP [=] nodegroup_id]
    [WAIT]
    [COMMENT [=] 'string']

  InnoDB and NDB:
    [ENGINE [=] engine_name]

This statement is used to create a tablespace. The precise syntax and semantics depend on the storage engine used. In standard MySQL releases, this is always an InnoDB tablespace. MySQL NDB Cluster also supports tablespaces using the NDB storage engine.

Considerations for InnoDB

CREATE TABLESPACE syntax is used to create general tablespaces or undo tablespaces. The UNDO keyword, introduced in MySQL 8.0.14, must be specified to create an undo tablespace.

A general tablespace is a shared tablespace. It can hold multiple tables, and supports all table row formats. General tablespaces can be created in a location relative to or independent of the data directory.

After creating an InnoDB general tablespace, use CREATE TABLE tbl_name ... TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name or ALTER TABLE tbl_name TABLESPACE [=] tablespace_name to add tables to the tablespace. For more information, see Section 15.6.3.3, “General Tablespaces”.

Undo tablespaces contain undo logs. Undo tablespaces can be created in a chosen location by specifying a fully qualified data file path. For more information, see Section 15.6.3.4, “Undo Tablespaces”.

Considerations for NDB Cluster

This statement is used to create a tablespace, which can contain one or more data files, providing storage space for NDB Cluster Disk Data tables (see Section 22.5.13, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Tables”). One data file is created and added to the tablespace using this statement. Additional data files may be added to the tablespace by using the ALTER TABLESPACE statement (see Section 13.1.10, “ALTER TABLESPACE Syntax”).

Note

All NDB Cluster Disk Data objects share the same namespace. This means that each Disk Data object must be uniquely named (and not merely each Disk Data object of a given type). For example, you cannot have a tablespace and a log file group with the same name, or a tablespace and a data file with the same name.

A log file group of one or more UNDO log files must be assigned to the tablespace to be created with the USE LOGFILE GROUP clause. logfile_group must be an existing log file group created with CREATE LOGFILE GROUP (see Section 13.1.16, “CREATE LOGFILE GROUP Syntax”). Multiple tablespaces may use the same log file group for UNDO logging.

When setting EXTENT_SIZE or INITIAL_SIZE, you may optionally follow the number with a one-letter abbreviation for an order of magnitude, similar to those used in my.cnf. Generally, this is one of the letters M (for megabytes) or G (for gigabytes).

INITIAL_SIZE and EXTENT_SIZE are subject to rounding as follows:

  • EXTENT_SIZE is rounded up to the nearest whole multiple of 32K.

  • INITIAL_SIZE is rounded down to the nearest whole multiple of 32K; this result is rounded up to the nearest whole multiple of EXTENT_SIZE (after any rounding).

The rounding just described is done explicitly, and a warning is issued by the MySQL Server when any such rounding is performed. The rounded values are also used by the NDB kernel for calculating INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES column values and other purposes. However, to avoid an unexpected result, we suggest that you always use whole multiples of 32K in specifying these options.

When CREATE TABLESPACE is used with ENGINE [=] NDB, a tablespace and associated data file are created on each Cluster data node. You can verify that the data files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table. (See the example later in this section.)

(See Section 25.11, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table”.)

Options

  • ADD DATAFILE: Defines the name of a tablespace data file. The ADD DATAFILE clause is required when creating undo tablespaces. Otherwise, it is optional as of MySQL 8.0.14.

    An InnoDB tablespace supports only a single data file, whose name must include a .ibd extension. An NDB Cluster tablespace supports multiple data files which can have any legal file names; more data files can be added to an NDB Cluster tablespace following its creation by using an ALTER TABLESPACE statement.

    To place a general tablespace data file in a location outside of the data directory, include a fully qualified path or a path relative to the data directory. Only a fully qualified path is permitted for undo tablespaces. If you do not specify a path, a general tablespace is created in the data directory. An undo tablespace created without specifying a path is created in the directory defined by the innodb_undo_directory variable. If the innodb_undo_directory variable is undefined, undo tablespaces are created in the data directory.

    Creating a general tablespace in a subdirectory under the data directory is not supported to avoid conflicts with implicitly created file-per-table tablespaces. When creating a general tablespace or undo tablespace outside of the data directory, the directory must exist and must be known to InnoDB prior to creating the tablespace. To make a directory known to InnoDB, add it to the innodb_directories value or to one of the variables whose values are appended to the innodb_directories value. innodb_directories is a read-only variable. Configuring it requires restarting the server.

    The file_name, including any specified path, must be quoted with single or double quotations marks. File names (not counting the file extension) and directory names must be at least one byte in length. Zero length file names and directory names are not supported.

    If the ADD DATAFILE clause is not specified when creating a tablespace, a tablespace data file with a unique file name is created implicitly. The unique file name is a 128 bit UUID formatted into five groups of hexadecimal numbers separated by dashes (aaaaaaaa-bbbb-cccc-dddd-eeeeeeeeeeee). A file extension is added if required by the storage engine. An .ibd file extension is added for InnoDB general tablespace data files. In a replication environment, the data file name created on the master is not the same as the data file name created on the slave.

    As of MySQL 8.0.17, the ADD DATAFILE clause does not permit circular directory references when creating an InnoDB tablespace. For example, the circular directory reference (/../) in the following statement is not permitted:

    CREATE TABLESPACE ts1 ADD DATAFILE ts1.ibd 'any_directory/../ts1.ibd';
    

    An exception to this restriction exists on Linux, where a circular directory reference is permitted if the preceding directory is a symbolic link. For example, the data file path in the example above is permitted if any_directory is a symbolic link. (It is still permitted for data file paths to begin with '../'.)

  • FILE_BLOCK_SIZE: This option—which is specific to InnoDB general tablespaces, and is ignored by NDB—defines the block size for the tablespace data file. Values can be specified in bytes or kilobytes. For example, an 8 kilobyte file block size can be specified as 8192 or 8K. If you do not specify this option, FILE_BLOCK_SIZE defaults to the innodb_page_size value. FILE_BLOCK_SIZE is required when you intend to use the tablespace for storing compressed InnoDB tables (ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED). In this case, you must define the tablespace FILE_BLOCK_SIZE when creating the tablespace.

    If FILE_BLOCK_SIZE is equal the innodb_page_size value, the tablespace can contain only tables having an uncompressed row format (COMPACT, REDUNDANT, and DYNAMIC). Tables with a COMPRESSED row format have a different physical page size than uncompressed tables. Therefore, compressed tables cannot coexist in the same tablespace as uncompressed tables.

    For a general tablespace to contain compressed tables, FILE_BLOCK_SIZE must be specified, and the FILE_BLOCK_SIZE value must be a valid compressed page size in relation to the innodb_page_size value. Also, the physical page size of the compressed table (KEY_BLOCK_SIZE) must be equal to FILE_BLOCK_SIZE/1024. For example, if innodb_page_size=16K, and FILE_BLOCK_SIZE=8K, the KEY_BLOCK_SIZE of the table must be 8. For more information, see Section 15.6.3.3, “General Tablespaces”.

  • USE LOGFILE GROUP: Required for NDB, this is the name of a log file group previously created using CREATE LOGFILE GROUP. Not supported for InnoDB, where it fails with an error.

  • EXTENT_SIZE: This option is specific to NDB, and is not supported by InnoDB, where it fails with an error. EXTENT_SIZE sets the size, in bytes, of the extents used by any files belonging to the tablespace. The default value is 1M. The minimum size is 32K, and theoretical maximum is 2G, although the practical maximum size depends on a number of factors. In most cases, changing the extent size does not have any measurable effect on performance, and the default value is recommended for all but the most unusual situations.

    An extent is a unit of disk space allocation. One extent is filled with as much data as that extent can contain before another extent is used. In theory, up to 65,535 (64K) extents may used per data file; however, the recommended maximum is 32,768 (32K). The recommended maximum size for a single data file is 32G—that is, 32K extents × 1 MB per extent. In addition, once an extent is allocated to a given partition, it cannot be used to store data from a different partition; an extent cannot store data from more than one partition. This means, for example that a tablespace having a single datafile whose INITIAL_SIZE (described in the following item) is 256 MB and whose EXTENT_SIZE is 128M has just two extents, and so can be used to store data from at most two different disk data table partitions.

    You can see how many extents remain free in a given data file by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table, and so derive an estimate for how much space remains free in the file. For further discussion and examples, see Section 25.11, “The INFORMATION_SCHEMA FILES Table”.

  • INITIAL_SIZE: This option is specific to NDB, and is not supported by InnoDB, where it fails with an error.

    The INITIAL_SIZE parameter sets the total size in bytes of the data file that was specific using ADD DATATFILE. Once this file has been created, its size cannot be changed; however, you can add more data files to the tablespace using ALTER TABLESPACE ... ADD DATAFILE.

    INITIAL_SIZE is optional; its default value is 134217728 (128 MB).

    On 32-bit systems, the maximum supported value for INITIAL_SIZE is 4294967296 (4 GB).

  • AUTOEXTEND_SIZE: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 8.0 or MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • MAX_SIZE: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 8.0 or MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • NODEGROUP: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 8.0 or MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • WAIT: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 8.0 or MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • COMMENT: Currently ignored by MySQL; reserved for possible future use. Has no effect in any release of MySQL 8.0 or MySQL NDB Cluster 8.0, regardless of the storage engine used.

  • The ENCRYPTION clause enables or disables page-level data encryption for an InnoDB general tablespace. Encryption support for general tablespaces was introduced in MySQL 8.0.13.

    As of MySQL 8.0.16, if the ENCRYPTION clause is not specified, the default_table_encryption setting controls whether encryption is enabled. The ENCRYPTION clause overrides the default_table_encryption setting. However, if the table_encryption_privilege_check variable is enabled, the TABLE_ENCRYPTION_ADMIN privilege is required to use an ENCRYPTION clause setting that differs from the default_table_encryption setting.

    A keyring plugin must be installed and configured before an encryption-enabled tablespace can be created.

    When a general tablespace is encrypted, all tables residing in the tablespace are encrypted. Likewise, a table created in an encrypted tablespace is encrypted.

    For more information, see Section 15.6.3.9, “InnoDB Data-at-Rest Encryption”

  • ENGINE: Defines the storage engine which uses the tablespace, where engine_name is the name of the storage engine. Currently, only the InnoDB storage engine is supported by standard MySQL 8.0 releases. MySQL NDB Cluster supports both NDB and InnoDB tablespaces. The value of the default_storage_engine system variable is used for ENGINE if the option is not specified.

Notes

  • For the rules covering the naming of MySQL tablespaces, see Section 9.2, “Schema Object Names”. In addition to these rules, the slash character (/) is not permitted, nor can you use names beginning with innodb_, as this prefix is reserved for system use.

  • Creation of temporary general tablespaces is not supported.

  • General tablespaces do not support temporary tables.

  • The TABLESPACE option may be used with CREATE TABLE or ALTER TABLE to assign an InnoDB table partition or subpartition to a file-per-table tablespace. All partitions must belong to the same storage engine. Assigning table partitions to shared InnoDB tablespaces is not supported. Shared tablespaces include the InnoDB system tablespace and general tablespaces.

  • General tablespaces support the addition of tables of any row format using CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE. innodb_file_per_table does not need to be enabled.

  • innodb_strict_mode is not applicable to general tablespaces. Tablespace management rules are strictly enforced independently of innodb_strict_mode. If CREATE TABLESPACE parameters are incorrect or incompatible, the operation fails regardless of the innodb_strict_mode setting. When a table is added to a general tablespace using CREATE TABLE ... TABLESPACE or ALTER TABLE ... TABLESPACE, innodb_strict_mode is ignored but the statement is evaluated as if innodb_strict_mode is enabled.

  • Use DROP TABLESPACE to remove a tablespace. All tables must be dropped from a tablespace using DROP TABLE prior to dropping the tablespace. Before dropping an NDB Cluster tablespace you must also remove all its data files using one or more ALTER TABLESPACE ... DROP DATATFILE statements. See Section 22.5.13.1, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Objects”.

  • All parts of an InnoDB table added to an InnoDB general tablespace reside in the general tablespace, including indexes and BLOB pages.

    For an NDB table assigned to a tablespace, only those columns which are not indexed are stored on disk, and actually use the tablespace data files. Indexes and indexed columns for all NDB tables are always kept in memory.

  • Similar to the system tablespace, truncating or dropping tables stored in a general tablespace creates free space internally in the general tablespace .ibd data file which can only be used for new InnoDB data. Space is not released back to the operating system as it is for file-per-table tablespaces.

  • A general tablespace is not associated with any database or schema.

  • ALTER TABLE ... DISCARD TABLESPACE and ALTER TABLE ...IMPORT TABLESPACE are not supported for tables that belong to a general tablespace.

  • The server uses tablespace-level metadata locking for DDL that references general tablespaces. By comparison, the server uses table-level metadata locking for DDL that references file-per-table tablespaces.

  • A generated or existing tablespace cannot be changed to a general tablespace.

  • There is no conflict between general tablespace names and file-per-table tablespace names. The / character, which is present in file-per-table tablespace names, is not permitted in general tablespace names.

  • mysqldump and mysqlpump do not dump InnoDB CREATE TABLESPACE statements.

InnoDB Examples

This example demonstrates creating a general tablespace and adding three uncompressed tables of different row formats.

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE `ts1` ADD DATAFILE 'ts1.ibd' ENGINE=INNODB;

mysql> CREATE TABLE t1 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY) TABLESPACE ts1 ROW_FORMAT=REDUNDANT;

mysql> CREATE TABLE t2 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY) TABLESPACE ts1 ROW_FORMAT=COMPACT;

mysql> CREATE TABLE t3 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY) TABLESPACE ts1 ROW_FORMAT=DYNAMIC;

This example demonstrates creating a general tablespace and adding a compressed table. The example assumes a default innodb_page_size value of 16K. The FILE_BLOCK_SIZE of 8192 requires that the compressed table have a KEY_BLOCK_SIZE of 8.

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE `ts2` ADD DATAFILE 'ts2.ibd' FILE_BLOCK_SIZE = 8192 Engine=InnoDB;

mysql> CREATE TABLE t4 (c1 INT PRIMARY KEY) TABLESPACE ts2 ROW_FORMAT=COMPRESSED KEY_BLOCK_SIZE=8;

This example demonstrates creating a general tablespace without specifying the ADD DATAFILE clause, which is optional as of MySQL 8.0.14.

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE `ts3` ENGINE=INNODB;

This example demonstrates creating an undo tablespace.

mysql> CREATE UNDO TABLESPACE undo_003 ADD DATAFILE 'undo_003.ibu';

NDB Example

Suppose that you wish to create an NDB Cluster Disk Data tablespace named myts using a datafile named mydata-1.dat. An NDB tablespace always requires the use of a log file group consisting of one or more undo log files. For this example, we first create a log file group named mylg that contains one undo long file named myundo-1.dat, using the CREATE LOGFILE GROUP statement shown here:

mysql> CREATE LOGFILE GROUP myg1
    ->     ADD UNDOFILE 'myundo-1.dat'
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (3.29 sec)

Now you can create the tablespace previously described using the following statement:

mysql> CREATE TABLESPACE myts
    ->     ADD DATAFILE 'mydata-1.dat'
    ->     USE LOGFILE GROUP mylg
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (2.98 sec)

You can now create a Disk Data table using a CREATE TABLE statement with the TABLESPACE and STORAGE DISK options, similar to what is shown here:

mysql> CREATE TABLE mytable (
    ->     id INT UNSIGNED NOT NULL AUTO_INCREMENT PRIMARY KEY,
    ->     lname VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    ->     fname VARCHAR(50) NOT NULL,
    ->     dob DATE NOT NULL,
    ->     joined DATE NOT NULL,
    ->     INDEX(last_name, first_name)
    -> )
    ->     TABLESPACE myts STORAGE DISK
    ->     ENGINE=NDB;
Query OK, 0 rows affected (1.41 sec)

It is important to note that only the dob and joined columns from mytable are actually stored on disk, due to the fact that the id, lname, and fname columns are all indexed.

As mentioned previously, when CREATE TABLESPACE is used with ENGINE [=] NDB, a tablespace and associated data file are created on each NDB Cluster data node. You can verify that the data files were created and obtain information about them by querying the INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES table, as shown here:

mysql> SELECT FILE_NAME, FILE_TYPE, LOGFILE_GROUP_NAME, STATUS, EXTRA
    ->     FROM INFORMATION_SCHEMA.FILES
    ->     WHERE TABLESPACE_NAME = 'myts';

+--------------+------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| file_name    | file_type  | logfile_group_name | status | extra          |
+--------------+------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
| mydata-1.dat | DATAFILE   | mylg               | NORMAL | CLUSTER_NODE=5 |
| mydata-1.dat | DATAFILE   | mylg               | NORMAL | CLUSTER_NODE=6 |
| NULL         | TABLESPACE | mylg               | NORMAL | NULL           |
+--------------+------------+--------------------+--------+----------------+
3 rows in set (0.01 sec)

For additional information and examples, see Section 22.5.13.1, “NDB Cluster Disk Data Objects”.

13.1.22 CREATE TRIGGER Syntax

CREATE
    [DEFINER = user]
    TRIGGER trigger_name
    trigger_time trigger_event
    ON tbl_name FOR EACH ROW
    [trigger_order]
    trigger_body

trigger_time: { BEFORE | AFTER }

trigger_event: { INSERT | UPDATE | DELETE }

trigger_order: { FOLLOWS | PRECEDES } other_trigger_name

This statement creates a new trigger. A trigger is a named database object that is associated with a table, and that activates when a particular event occurs for the table. The trigger becomes associated with the table named tbl_name, which must refer to a permanent table. You cannot associate a trigger with a TEMPORARY table or a view.

Trigger names exist in the schema namespace, meaning that all triggers must have unique names within a schema. Triggers in different schemas can have the same name.

This section describes CREATE TRIGGER syntax. For additional discussion, see Section 24.3.1, “Trigger Syntax and Examples”.

CREATE TRIGGER requires the TRIGGER privilege for the table associated with the trigger. If the DEFINER clause is present, the privileges required depend on the user value, as discussed in Section 24.6, “Stored Object Access Control”. If binary logging is enabled, CREATE TRIGGER might require the SUPER privilege, as discussed in Section 24.7, “Stored Program Binary Logging”.

The DEFINER clause determines the security context to be used when checking access privileges at trigger activation time, as described later in this section.

trigger_time is the trigger action time. It can be BEFORE or AFTER to indicate that the trigger activates before or after each row to be modified.

Basic column value checks occur prior to trigger activation, so you cannot use BEFORE triggers to convert values inappropriate for the column type to valid values.

trigger_event indicates the kind of operation that activates the trigger. These trigger_event values are permitted:

  • INSERT: The trigger activates whenever a new row is inserted into the table (for example, through INSERT,